Socio-cultural factors influencing acceptance of family planning among rural women of child bearing age in Urhiephron community  Ughelli South Local Government Area of Delta State.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the study

The principle of population control is family planning. Research on fertility determinant during the last four decades has focused on economic and socio cultural factors that affect the attitude of individual or couples towards family size. More than half a million women nearly all of them in the developing world die each year in pregnancy or childbirth and millions suffer serious pregnancy – related injuries. Much of these suffering and death could be prevented through effective family planning engendered by modern contraceptives. The use of contraceptive protects women from the health risk of unwanted pregnancies and gives women control over their lives.

According to Nelson (2014), family planning is a pillar of safe motherhood and is now seen as a human right. It is a cost effective method of reducing maternal morbidity and mortality. Contraceptive methods have had a considerable positive impact on maternal and infant health and population growth. It is however unfortunate that unwanted pregnancies and unsafe terminations of pregnancy still occur in large numbers.

Caufield, (2013) observed that, family planning is the purposeful regulation of conception or childbirth or the use of devices, chemicals, or other techniques to prevent or terminate pregnancy or voluntary avoidance or delay of pregnancy. Family planning techniques commonly used include sexual education, prevention and management of sexually transmitted infections, pre-conception counselling and management and infertility management. These services are defined as “educational, comprehensive medical or social activities which enable couples, individuals including sexually active individual to determine freely the number and spacing of their children, avoid getting pregnant and/or even avoid sexually transmitted diseases and to select the means by which this may be achieved. Family planning is sometimes used as a synonym for birth control or child spacing, though it often includes more method.

In Nigeria, before the introduction of modern family planning by Babangida administration in 1989 there were traditional birth control. These traditional methods which still exist and are convenient for users are natural while the modern types which are new in Nigeria are both natural and artificial.

Coleman, (2012) assert that, socio-cultural factor of the people, lack of education and understanding about health related issues, the inability of women to command resources and make independent decisions about their fertility and lack of birth control knowledge.  Location, religion and social class, lack of cooperation, lack of knowledge about contraceptive methods are factors hindering family planning in the society at large.

World Bank, (2011) observed that, access to family planning in the rural is low due to low socio-cultural factors, lack of proximity, bad road network and the nearest urban center, where such clinic is available, it may not provide adequate care because of lack of properly trained staff and equipment. Other factors include lack of proper family planning function dissemination; inadequate motivation to seek actively, access and regularly use of contraceptives.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Family planning is a major concern to both the government and individuals over the years. Although the population of Nigeria is very high due poor knowledge and attitude of people towards family planning services, poor knowledge on family planning has resulted to lose of lives, unwanted pregnancy resulting from frustration and pursuance of money by our youths, poor living conditions, stillbirth, in most consequently there is rise in poor education, overcrowding, risk of Human Immune Virus (HIV) and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI). This trend is even higher in rural areas where there is largely limited access to family planning and quality care

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of the study is to investigate socio-cultural factors influencing acceptance of family planning among childbearing age in Urhiephron community which includes;

  1. To find out the level of people’s awareness about the use of family planning services in Urhiephron community
  2. To find out the socio-cultural factors responsible for non – acceptance of family planning in Urhiephron community.
  3. To examine possible ways of improving acceptance and usage of family planning services
  1. 4 Significance of the Study

This study will be of important in the following ways;

  1. The study will help to enlighten the general public on the effect attributed to socio cultural factor influencing acceptance of family planning among rural women and measures to undertaken to reduce the problem associated with family planning among rural women.
  2. It will help to enlighten the women on the socio-cultural factors responsible for non acceptance of family planning services in the study area and to provide additional insight to the existing literature on family planning services, attitudes and perceptions in Nigeria with particular reference to Urhiephron community.
  3. It will help to enlighten them on the constraints and possible ways to improve acceptance and accessing family planning in order to helping couples to plan to have the number of children they desire and also be able to raise their children with full assurance of available resources, maintain good health and save, and unmarried women including adolescents and minors to manage their active sexual lives properly without regret.

1.5 Definition of terms

Sociocultural: are custom, lifestyles and values that characterize a society or group. For example knowing about the people around you and their family background, status in the society etc

Cultural factors: refer to the institutions, language, symbols, practices, values, beliefs, norms, folklores, etc of the people and how these affect knowledge and access to family planning services. 

Education: is a social institution, which enables and promotes the acquisition of skills, knowledge and the broadening of personal horizon.

Empowerment: It is the ability to act on knowledge acquired through family planning programmes without restriction, and is encouraged through improvement in literacy level, finance and political policies and programmes, which should insist on family planning services as a basic right. 

Maternal mortality: Also known as maternal death is defined as the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 weeks of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and size of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management including incidental causes but not accidental causes.

Incidental causes of maternal mortality: include deaths due to violence against women that may be related to the pregnancy and be affected by the socio-economic and cultural environment, such as wife beating, rape, STDs, other harmful traditional practices.

Contraceptives: devices used to prevent fertilization of an egg such as barriers (e.g condom etc.) hormonal (such as removable implants, injectables etc.), intrauterine devices, chemical barriers (such as spermicides etc).

Population policy: this refers to a programme or a set of programmes of action that seeks to contribute to national development and welfare goals through measures that are directly or indirectly aimed to influence fertility control and well being of women.

Reproductive Health: it is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in all matters relating to the reproductive system and to its functions and processes.

 Reproductive Health Care: a group of methods, techniques, and services that contribute to solving reproductive health problems.

Sexuality Communication: refers to the discussions on sex issues such as on menstruation, free period, child spacing, initiating sex, number of children to have, use of contraception such as condom, sterilization, etc infections.

1.6 Scope of the Study

The study covers the socio-cultural factors influencing acceptance of family planning among rural women of child bearing age in Urhiephron community  Ughelli South Local Government Area of Delta State.

1.7 Research Questions

This study will seek to provide answers to these questions:

  1. What is the level of people’s awareness about the use of family planning services in Urhiephron community?
  2. What are factors responsible for non – acceptance of family planning in Urhiephron community?
  3. What are the possible ways of improving acceptance and usage of family planning services?

 

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW RELATED LITERATURE

2.0 Introduction

This chapter embodies the review of all various literature by various authors that have critically examine the socio cultural factors influencing acceptance of family planning among rural women of child bearing age.

For clearer understanding the study will be reviewed under the following sub – headings.

2.1 Overview of Family Planning

2.1.1 Types of Family Planning

2.1.2 Advantages / Disadvantages of Family Planning

2.1.3 Socio-cultural Factors Influencing Family Planning

2.1.4 Possible Ways of Improving Family Planning

2.1.5 Importance of Family Planning

2.2 Empirical Review

2.3 Conceptual Framework

2.1 Overview of Family Planning

The term family planning refers to the use of modern contraception and other methods that is adopted voluntarily upon the basic knowledge, attitude and responsible decision making by individuals or couples in order to pin the number, timing and spacing of the children that they want, so as to promote the health and welfare of the family group, and contribute to the advancement of the society. Family planning services are defined as “educational, comprehensive medical or social activities which enable individuals including minors, to determine freely the number and spacing of their child and to select the means by which this may be achieved (Margaret, 2010).

Delano (2015) it is very glaring that family planning has been in existence but the modification of primitive knowledge which are centrally based into the modern method of contraception which is scientifically based is where the challenge lies, because it become imperative that the choice of family planning practice varies from one individual or couple to another.  He further explained that awareness of family Planning will help individuals in various ways by protecting unwanted pregnancies, prevention sexually transmitted infections and awareness of family planning will also enable couples chose the kind of family planning service they will use to control birth.   

2.1.1 Types of Family Planning

Lubin (2011) stated the following as types of family planning;

Traditional Family Planning

Traditional family planning have been used by our ancestors for a long time in child spacing before the advent of the modern contraceptive methods but even with the introduction of the modern methods some women prefer to use the traditional family planning to control pregnancy before the emergence of modern birth control such as condoms and drugs and men and women utilized primitive methods for preventing conception. Although some of these techniques are surprisingly effective, they require diligence and careful planning. Some of the traditional methods include the use of herbs and roots and other substances such as rings, pendant, armband, bark of trees, vinegar, fluid from corpse, spiritual objects, waist band, line, weeds, padlock, scarification, abstinence etc.

According to World Health Organisation (WHO, 2010), traditional family planning is the sum total of the knowledge, skills, and practices based on the theories, beliefs, and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not. It is used in the maintenance of health as well as prevents unwanted pregnancies b efore the introduction of modern contraceptive used in preventing pregnancies such as condoms, pills, surgical method and intrauterine contraceptive device.

Natural Family Planning

Natural family planning (NFP) is a form of family planning; it does not involve medicine or devices. Natural family planning helps people know when to have sexual intercourse. It can be used if you are trying to achieve or avoid pregnancy which involves keeping track of a woman’s bodily changes throughout her menstrual cycle. Most people who choose natural family planning do so either for religious or personal reasons. Natural family planning is the only option that is free and has no impact on health.

According to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (2009) natural family planning requires learning the body’s cycles to recognize when a woman is most fertile. This is used to achieve pregnancy by timing intercourse for fertile times, or to avoid pregnancy by remaining abstinent during fertile periods. The main disadvantage of this method of birth control is that it requires couples to remain abstinent during the time when women are biologically most interested in sex.

Fertility awareness is also known as natural family planning, which is the method of abstaining from intercourse on a woman’s fertile days, when she is most likely to become pregnant.

According to WHO (2010) observed that natural method of family planning consist of the following types which includes;

  1. Billing method of Ovulation (cervical mucus):- In this method the woman observes, recognize, interprets and records the .body changes thereby taking note of the quality and characteristics of the cervical mucus that is, the colour and texture of the cervical mucus.
  2. Calendar Method:-This method allows women to calculate the duration of their fertile period that is the time which a viable egg is available for fertilization by sperm. Using the calendar which aid the calculation of fertile days
  3. Breastfeeding Method: – Breastfeeding is the act of nourishing/feeding an infant with milk from the breast. Breastfeeding as a sole means of contraception is most reliable during the first 6 months of post partum before the return of menses and this is effective especially when the woman is practicing exclusive breastfeeding which delays the return of ovulation in post partum women.
  4. Basal body Temperature Method: – This temperature method involves knowing the ovulation period by using the body temperature chart to determine the probable time of ovulation. This is based on the fact that when the ripe egg is released from the ovary, there is a slight decrease in temperature and after a day or two, the temperature rises which remains at this level until the next period. It is presumed that 3 days after the rise of temperature is safe for sexual intercourse.
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Artificial Family Planning

Artificial family planning could be seen as unnatural technique that is used to prevent conception in a way of controlling your family size. Many couples choose to delay or forgo having children, which involves use of medicine and other contraceptive to prevent pregnancy such as Barrier methods of birth control which physically stop the sperm from getting to the egg, surgical birth control is considered permanent, and is only for people who do not want any or any more children and pills which helps in birth control. Also, hormonal method of contraception is an artificial method that interfers with hormones in the woman’s body thereby preventing the ovaries from releasing an egg such as pills, injectables and implant. It has side effects which include: blood clots, irregular bleeding, stroke, high blood pressure, cancer, etc. This artificial family planning methods divides into three (3) sub – headings which are

Hormonal Family Planning

Sonfield (2008) reviewed that, these methods contain hormones called estrogen and progestin that are similar to the estrogen and progesterone a woman makes in her own body.  These hormonal methods includes

  1. Oral contraceptive pills: – These pills consists of either one or two types of the female hormones known as estrogen and progesterone which are similar to the female body nature hormones that are associated with the menstrual period and pregnancy. The pills are usually taken by mouth and comes in two forms which are either taken for 21 days or 28 days. Also they either contain only progestin which can be taken by breastfeeding mothers or both estrogen and progesterone (also called combined pills) which can be taken by all women except breastfeeding women. These pills are taken everyday in the month. Side effects include irregular bleeding or spotting, no monthly bleeding, headaches, fullness or tenderness of breast, nausea etc.
  2. Injectables:– The injectable are long acting hormonal contraceptive similar to the pills which contains either one or both of the female body hormone known as progesterone and estrogen and women who have never proved their fertility (by being pregnant) should not use it in view of the presumed side effect of delayed return to fertility. Furthermore, only those who have had 2 children or more should use it in view of the same reason. And there are the two (2) types of injectable methods which are the Depo-provera which is given at 3 months intervals and Noristerate given at 2 months intervals. Both are highly effective and suitable for those who are undecided about permanent method of birth control and are useful for women who require long interval between birth. But they are not easily available and only specialized trained personnel should administer it. The side effect are similar to the oral pills such as no monthly bleeding, irregular bleeding or heavy spotting weight gain etc.
  3. Implant:– Implants are small, soft tubes that are placed under the skin on the woman’s upper arm. And these tubes contain the hormone progestin which work like the pills (21 – day pill) and they prevent pregnancy for about 3 to 5 years depending on the type of implant. Due to the fact that it contains only progestin, it can be used by women who are breastfeeding and others who have problems with estrogen. Examples of implant include the Jadelle, implanon and the common side effects includes, irregular bleeding or more days of monthly bleeding, no bleeding at all and also occasional headaches and discomfort. Implant can be removed at any time whereby after removal, the woman can get pregnant right away or decides to use another family planning method if she doesn’t want to become pregnant.

Barrier Method of artificial Family Planning

World Health Organization (2010) observed that, these are barrier method of artificial family planning that prevent the sperm from meeting with ovaries (eggs). These barrier method can either be chemical such as the spermicide and foaming tablet and mechanical such as diaphragm, condoms and IUCD (intrauterine contraceptive devices).

  1. Spermicide: – these are chemical substance deposited into the vaginal cavity before sexual intercourse in order to block the cervix and kill the sperm thus preventing pregnancy without causing any injury to the vaginal.
  2. Foaming tablet: – these are substance in a tablet form inserted into the vagina with a special tube-like called applicator. These foaming tablet are barrier form of family planning which causes a slight irritation and also a warm sensation when inserted into the vagina. But, most women use it as a back-up method for other birth control method i.e extra protection.
  3. Condom: – this is a rubber-like ballon which is worn over the man’s erected penis before intercourse to prevent pregnancy by collecting and preventing the spermatozoa from entering into the vagina and the female also wear the female condom for the same function. It comes in various colours with lubricant and it comes in one size which fits all users. This method is also one of the most commonly used methods of birth control.
  4. Diaphram: – This is a soft dome – shaped rubber resembling a cup with a flexible metal spring at the outer edge which is introduced into the vagina before intercourse to prevent pregnancy thus makes it impossible for the sperm to get close to the ovaries. This method is not commonly use and can be cared for after removal from the vagina by washing with cold water and non – perfumed or non– detergent soap which is rinse well and clean with a piece of cloth and powder with non – perfumed/non medicated powder or dry starch powder. This method is inexpensive if well taken care of and protect against STIs.
  5. Intrauterine Contraceptive Device: An Intrauterine Contraceptive Device (IUCD) is a small copper or plastic device inserted into the uterus that creates a hostile environment for sperm. The IUCD prevent the man’s sperm from fertilizing the woman’s egg and can also be used safely by breastfeeding mothers. IUCD comes in various types and shape and can last up to 5, 10 or 12 years depending on the kind of IUCD used which can also be removed and replaced by a skilled health personnel only. The various types are usually found and used in developing countries such as Copper “T” usually referred to as “Cup of tea”, Copper 250, 375 and 380A which is the most common one, coil (also called lippes loop) and multi – load. The common side effects are heavier and more painful bleeding and irregular bleeding within the first 3 month. This method is highly effective and reversible. And also the woman can easily check by watching her hand and squatting with her 2 fingers in the vagina to feel for the IUCD strings and then take her hand out and wash properly.

Abstinence: Abstinence is the act of avoiding sex, whether sexual contact altogether or just intercourse. This method of family planning is the only one that is 100 percent effective in preventing pregnancy and protecting against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Abstinence can be difficult to maintain and allows for little spontaneity.

Permanent Method of Family Planning

  1. Sterilization: Sterilization is a safe, surgical and permanent method of birth control performed on either a woman or man who has decided to put an end to child bearing, then the woman and man can be sterilized. In women tubal ligation is performed to cut off the fallopian tubes so eggs cannot be released into the uterus for fertilization. While men have vasectomy, where the vas deferens that carry sperm are blocked. Sterilization is nearly 100 percent effective, but should be considered on a permanent decision (World Bank, 2011).

2.1.2 Advantages / Disadvantages of Family Planning

Rowland (2012) assert that family planning have advantage and disadvantage which includes;

Advantages of Family Planning

According to the California Department of Health Services Office of Family Planning (2009) considered the following as advantages of family planning.

  1. Family planning reduces the number of unplanned pregnancies and abortions among women
  2. To allows women the opportunity to choose when the time is right to have a child.
  3. Family planning gives women the option to wait until they are financially able to care for a child,
  4. Also gives them time to pursue educational and employment goals without worrying about the financial burden of an unplanned pregnancy.
  5. It enable parents to gives his/her children their basic needs (food, shelter, education) and better future.
  6. Reducing infant mortality and helping to prevent infectious diseases

7. Empowering people and enhancing education, reducing adolescent pregnancies, slowing population growth  and reducing the need for unsafe abortion

8. Reducing maternal and child mortality rate

Disadvantages of Family Planning

According to the California Department of Health Services Office of Family Planning (2009) considered the following as disadvantages of family planning.

  1. The most common disadvantage of family planning is that it leads to hormonal imbalance which includes headaches, dizziness and nausea, vaginal bleeding and irregular periods.
  2. It also lead to ectopic pregnancy
  3. It also lead to Psychological depression
  4. Leads to sterility if a surgical method is adopted
  5. More cramps and pain during monthly bleeding
  6. Changes in bleeding patterns (especially in the first 3 to 6 months) including: Prolonged and heavy monthly bleeding
  7. It could leads to increase in blood pressure leading to stroke

2.1.3 Socio-cultural Factors Influencing Family Planning

According to Sonfield (2008) several social and cultural factors may influence the use of family planning method. Family planning itself is used for different purposes, one of them being for spacing. Spacing is intended to give reasonable rest to a woman in between two pregnancies.. Here women take into consideration several factors, personal comfort, having a job, having somebody to take care at home during pregnancy and child rearing, etc. Hence we thought it legitimate to examine the background of women who go for spacing. In this section we relate social and cultural factors with previous use of family planning i.e., use of family planning method before first conception. This includes both modern and traditional methods of contraception. Socio cultural factors that affect decisions regarding fertility and fertility regulation in north-eastern Nigeria are poorly understood.

Osikoya (2013) reviewed that socio cultural belief was common and strong in both the intervention and non-intervention communities. Child-spacing was strongly believed to help mothers regain their strength after delivery. Other reasons for this were related to child welfare; as lactating babies usually got sick and die when their mothers get pregnant before weaning them. There was also the cultural belief that successive and frequent pregnancies led to death of the lactating mothers or the infants or both of them. Some cultural beliefs believed that family planning or birth control is against the law of nature which is multiplication while others see children as blessings from /their gods and would have as many as possible. Some culture sees many children as strength and being productive thereby leading to polygamy in order to achieve such.

2.1.4 Possible Ways of Improving Family Planning

United States Agency for International Development (2009) who stated that Government should provide training for family planning service providers in both rural and urban areas, community base education and mobilization on family planning service with trained health personnel to mobilized community leaders and members furnishing them with information, education and communication on family planning services to educate women, men and youth group meetings. Other mobilization activities include the use of social media platforms (e.g. Facebook), project banners and posters. He further explained that the following could be considered as possible ways of improving family planning service which includes;

  1. Community Mobilization
  2. Effective Government Policy
  3. Monitoring and Evaluation of health programme to community member
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2.1.5 Importance of Family Planning

Nelson (2011) family planning is important to mother, children, father, and the family, family planning is important for the health of a mother and her children, as well as the family’s economic situation. According to the United States Agency for International Development, having children more than five years or less than two years apart can cause both a mother and her children serious health consequences. The financial consequence of having children involves the medical costs of pregnancy and birth and the high costs associated with actually bringing up children. Since parents are responsible for providing education, shelter, clothing and food for their children, family planning has an important long-term impact on the financial situation of any family.

Mother

  1. Enables her to regain her health after delivery.
  2. Gives enough time and opportunity to love and provide attention to her husband and children.
  3. Gives more time for her family and own personal advancement.
  4. When suffering from an illness, gives enough time for treatment and recovery.

Children

  1. Healthy mothers produce healthy children.
  2. Will get all the attention, security, love, and care they deserve.
  3. It enable children sustainable development and a higher quality of life
  4. It enable children to achieved economic growth and protection of the environment and provision of quality social services
  5. To improve the productive health of children

Father

  1. Lightens the burden and responsibility in supporting his family.
  2. Enables him to give his children their basic needs (food, shelter, education, and better future).
  3. To avoid unwanted births and to control the time at which births occur in relation to the age of the Parents and, to determine the number of children in the family. In a broader sense, family planning is concerned with the quality of life. With family planning, pregnancies can be spaced so that a woman can regain all her strength and take good care of a new child.

2.8 Empirical Review

Irrespective of the study conducted on socio-cultural factors influencing acceptance of family planning among rural women of child bearing age in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria found out that family planning is a conscious effort made by couple to limit or space the number of children they want to have through the use of contraceptive methods (Robert, 2016).  Hersh (2006) in Marshall (2011) maintain that family planning is a way of living that is adopted voluntarily on the basis of knowledge, attitude, and responsible decision-making by individuals or couples to pin the number, timing, and spacing of the children they want, with intention of promoting the health and welfare of the family group, and contribution toward the advancement of the society.

Another study in South – South Nigeria conducted by Obi ( 2008) also observed that family planning is an attempt made to control increase in population started from the early men and evidence from medical history indicates that our forefathers did space their children through traditional means, family planning had been handed down from generation to generation.

Research surveillance conducted in North American by Roland (2015), also identified that the concept of primary health care perspective is that family planning refers to services offered to couples to educate them about family planning and to encourage them to achieve this with regards to the prevention of unwanted pregnancy and limiting the size of the family in the interest of family health and socio-economic status.

2.9 Conceptual Framework

According to Lawrence, (2008) reviewed that, family planning as a system of limiting family size and the frequency of child bearing by the appropriate use of contraceptive techniques.

Hardee (2009) family planning is an important part of an overall demographic and population policy of any country, family planning enables the individuals and couples to anticipate and achieve the desired number of children; the rapid increase of population has got an adverse effect on the national economy. Considering the magnitude of the problem, many developing countries, such as Nigeria in particular, have given prime importance to family planning issue. The government of Nigeria launched a Family Welfare Program in 1950s to accelerate the economic and social development by reducing the population growth. However, this program has met with only marginal success, large proportion of population reside in urban slums and rural areas where poverty, misconceived religious notions, social customs, illiteracy, ignorance and superstitions prevail. Hence, the problem of non-acceptance of family planning becomes an acute one among these population sub-groups. To prevent the fruits of improvement in different sectors from getting eroded by growing population, it is necessary to develop a special program which can tackle the family planning needs of different groups. But before launching a special program, a thorough understanding of socio demographic determinants, knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning is essential.

Obiamaka (2016) says that, the term “family planning” is often used as a synonym for “birth control.” Family planning, however, does not only involve contraception. Family planning also takes into account planning your child’s birth for specific times (possibly by spacing births a few years apart from one another) and planning for a child when you have challenges conceiving one.

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Design

The study design adopted for the research will be descriptive survey method. This will enable the researcher to collect meaningful information and data concerning the topic under study “socio-cultural factors influencing acceptance of family planning among rural women in Urhiephron community in Ughelli South Local Government Area, Delta State. The descriptive survey method is a research design in which a group of people is studied by collecting and analyzing data with only a few items considered to the entire group of rural women of child bearing age in Urhiephron community.

3.2 Area of Study

The study area is Urhiephron community in Ughelli South Local Government Area, Delta State. Urhiephron community is bounded in the North by Orhuvwhorun community, in the south by Ighrekeka community, in the West by Ekrokpe community and in the East by Ughrode community. Urhiephron community is an Urhobo speaking community but because there are many strangers in the community they also use pigin English as their general language. The Urhiephron community is headed by president general under Uhurie clan, which is a sub clan to Ujuwve kingdom.

Urhiephron community has a government primary and secondary schools and as well as a health center and other social facilities such as Hotel and other private businesses. The people religion is Africa tradition called Akuovworho supported by boar and Aju before the coming of Christ.

Large populations of the inhabitant of Urhiephron are subsistence farmers while other are into civil servant and scale entrepreneurs. Their market days are usually at 8 days interval called Edeki. Some of the factors influencing acceptance of family planning include cultural beliefs, customs and tradition because they believed that family planning or birth control is against the law of nature which is multiplication while others see children as blessings from /their gods and would have as many as possible. Their  culture sees many children as strength and being productive.

3.3 Population of study

The population of the study area is 3, 526 women of child bearing age. For the purpose of the study a target population of 1000 person was used for this research.

3.3.1 Research sample

A sample size of 120 persons was randomly selected among women of childbearing age in Urhiephron community in Ughelli South Local Government Area.

3.3.2 Sample Techniques

The researcher used the stratified random sampling technique which was used to divide the community into strata with each stratum representing a quarter in the community which are Ekito-Warien, Uduaghalokpe, Arhuorho, Eze/Ekregbenyevwe, Ekrarhie, and Ekresarho. Convenient sampling was also used to select 20 persons from each quarter in order to arrive at an accurate result.

3.4 Instrument

These are tools used by the researcher to collect data from the respondents in the study. Questionnaires were use to collect data from respondents. The questionnaire contained twelve (12) structure (close – ended) questions which were developed from the objective of the study and arranged in two sections (A and B). Section A deals with respondent’s demographic data while B deals with questions related to the research objectives in the likert scale format of Agree (A), strongly Agree (SA), Disagree (D), strongly Disagree (SD).

3.5 Validation

Validity is a measure of how well a test measures and supposed to measure. Validity is the degree to which results obtained actually represent phenomenon under investigation. The instrument that was used for the study was validated by the project supervisor in order to arrive at an accurate result.

3.6 Reliability of the instrument

The researcher made used of test-retest method to ensure the reliability of the instrument. The test items that were administered to the non-targeted group in Ekrokpe community making use of 20 persons and result analyzed and recorded immediately. Within two (2) weeks interval, the same question was administered to same group whereby results were collected and compared immediately in order to prove the reliability of the instrument before the test items were administered to the targeted group.

3.8 Method of Data collection

Data were collected through the use of structural questionnaire that was personally administered to respondents in Urhiephron community in Ughelli South Local Government Area. The questionnaires were retrieved immediately to ensure full retrieval and efficiency. 120 questionnaires will be shared.

3.9 Method of Data analysis

The method of data analysis that was used in the study was descriptive statistical method, frequency distribution table and percentages were used.

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION

4.1 Introduction

This chapter deals with presentation, analysis and interpretation of data collected. One hundred and twenty (120) questionnaires were administered to the respondents. It also interprets findings as it relates to the analysis of data utilized for the study and this was done through the following;

4.2 Presentation of Demographic Data

Table 4.1: Demographic data of respondents

AGE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE.
19 – 25 24 20%
26 – 35 46 38.3%
36 and above 50 41.7%
Marital status No of Respondents Percentage
Married 64 53.3%
Divorce 56 46.7%
Sex No of Respondents Percentage
Male 40 33.3%
Female 80 66.7%
Religion No. of Respondents Percentage
Christian 60 50%
Muslim 22 18.3%
Pagan 20 16.7%
African Traditional  religion 18 15%

Table 4.1 shows the demographic responses from the respondents who were one hundred and twenty (120) in numbers, the age distribution from the demographic data shows that 20% of the respondents fall within the age range of 19-25 years of age, 38.3% falls within the ages of 26-25, while 41.7% falls within the range of 36 and above. Sex distribution shows 33.3% were males while 66.7% were females.

Also religion as test of measurement shows that 50% were Christians, 18.3% were Muslims, and 16.7% were pagans while 15% were African Traditional Religion.

4.2 Descriptive Statistical Analysis

Research question 1

What is the level of people’s awareness about the use of family planning services in Urhiephron community?

Sub-question 1, 2, 3 and 4 in the questionnaire are set of related questions that represent the data for the treatment of the above stated research question as shown in table 4.2 below

Table 4.2: Respondent opinion on level of awareness on the use of family planning services

S/N Questions A SA D SD
1 The women of Urhiephron community aware of usage of family planning services 55

45.8%

20

16.7%

30

25%

15

12.5 %

2  Women of Urhiephron community have ‘positive awareness about family planning services 62

51.7%

28

23.3%

20%

16.7%

10

8.3%

3 Women of Urhiephron community have negative attitude about the awareness of family planning usage 54

45%

27

22.5%

21

17.5%

 

18

15%

4. Women of Urhiephron community are aware of the health benefits  associated with family planning 49

40.8%

38

31.7%

13

10.8%

20

16.7%

Item 1 shows that 62.5% agreed that women of Urhiephron community aware of usage of family planning services 37.5% disagreed with the view. Item 2 shows that 75% agreed that Women of Urhiephron community have ‘positive awareness about family planning services while 25% disagreed with the view. Item 3 show that 67.5% agreed women of Urhiephron community have negative attitude about the awareness of family planning usage while 32.5% disagreed with the view. Item 4 shows that 72.5% agree that Women of Urhiephron community are aware of the health benefits associated with family planning, while 27.5% disagree to the view that women of Urhiephron community are not aware of the health benefits associated with family planning. Based on the research analysis the researcher concluded that, the level of people awareness about the use of family planning services have increased.

Research question II

What are the factors responsible for non – acceptance of family planning in Urhiephron community?

Sub-question 5, 6, 7 and 8 in the questionnaire are set of related questions that represent the data for the treatment of the above stated research question as shown in table 4.4 below

Table 4.4 Respondents opinion on factors responsible for non – acceptance of family planning in Urhiephron community

S/N Question A SA D SD
5. Poverty is a constraints militating against people’s use of family planning services 45

37.5%

 

32

26.7%

14

11.7%

 

29

24.1%

6. Poor health facilities is a constraints  militating against people’s use of family planning services 69

57.5%

 

16

13.3%

 

21

17.5%

 

14

11.7%

7.  Ignorant of the people  is a constraints militating against people’s use of family planning services 20

16.7%

 

46

38.3%

24

20%

 

30

25%

8. Socio-cultural factors affect acceptance of family planning? 39

32.5%

19

15.8%

41

34.1%

21

17.5%

Table 4.4 socio-cultural factors affecting acceptance of family planning. Item 5 shows that 64.2% agreed that Poverty is a constraints militating against people’s use of family planning services while 35.8% disagreed with the view. Item 6 show that 70.8% agreed that poor health facilities are constraints militating against people’s use of family planning services. While 29.2% disagreed with the view. Item 7 shows that 55% agreed that Ignorant of the people is a constraints militating against people’s use of family planning services while 65% disagreed with the view. Item 8 show s that 48.3% of the respondents agree that socio-cultural factors affect acceptance of family planning while 51.6% disagree to the view. Based on the analysis, therefore the researcher concluded that socio-cultural factors affecting acceptance of family planning.

Research question III

What are the possible ways of improving acceptance and usage of family planning services?

Sub-question 9, 10, 11 and 12 in the questionnaire are set of related questions that represent the data for the treatment of the above stated research question as shown in table 4.5 below

4.5: Respondents opinion on possible ways of improving acceptance and usage of family planning services

S/N QUESTIONS SA A SD D
9.  Effective Government policy will improve acceptance and usage of family planning services 47

39.1%

 

26

21.7%

40

33.3%

 

7

5.8%

10. Government and non-governmental organization improve family planning service 58

48.3%

 

22

18.3%

 

17

14.1%

 

23

19.1%

11. Good health facilities will help to improve family planning service 70

58.3%

30

25%

15

12.5%

5

4.1%

12.  Proper health educations to the masses will improve acceptance and usage of family planning services 62

51.7%

30

25%

15

12.5%

13

10.8%

Item 9 shows that 60.8% agreed that effective Government policy will improve acceptance and usage of family planning services while 39.1% disagreed with the view.  Item 10 shows that 66.6% agreed that there Government and non-governmental organization improve family planning service while 33.2% disagreed with the view. Item 11 show that 83.3% agreed that good health facilities will help to improve family planning service while 16.6% disagreed with the view. Item 12 shows that 76.7% agree that proper health educations to the masses will improve acceptance and usage of family planning services while 23.3% disagree to the view. Based on the analysis, therefore the researcher concluded that there are possible ways of improving acceptance and usage of family planning services

CHAPTER FIVE

DISCUSSION, SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION  

5.1 Discussion of Finding

This section focus attention on the discussion of the findings obtained from the previous chapter in relation to the research questions

5.1.1 Research Question I

From the analysis of research question one findings obtained revealed that the level of people awareness about the use of family planning services have increased. This finding is in line with Delano (2015) who reported that awareness of family Planning will help individuals in various ways by protecting unwanted pregnancies, prevention sexually transmitted infections and awareness of family planning will also enable couples chose the kind of family planning service they will use to control birth.   

5.1.3 Research Question II

From the analysis of research question three findings obtained revealed that there are factors responsible for non – acceptance of family planning in Urhiephron community. This in line with Sonfield (2008) several social and cultural factors may influence the use of family planning method. Family planning itself is used for different purposes, one of them being for spacing. Spacing is intended to give reasonable rest to a woman in between two pregnancies.

5.1.4 Research Question III

From the analysis of research question four findings obtained revealed that there are possible ways of improving acceptance and usage of family planning services. This finding is in line with Agency for International Development (2009) who stated that Government should provide training for family planning service providers in both rural and urban areas, community base education and mobilization on family planning service with trained health personnel to mobilized community leaders and members furnishing them with information, education and communication on family planning service s to educate women, men and youth group meetings. Other mobilization activities included the use of social media platforms (e.g. Facebook), project banners and posters.

5.2 Conclusion

The research work was based on socio-cultural factor influencing acceptance of family planning among rural women of child bearing age in Urhiephron community in Ughelli South Local Government Area Delta State. Based on the analysis of the stated objectives and research question formulated and discussion made, the researcher therefore conclude as follow:

  1. The level of people’s awareness on the of use of family planning service have increased
  2. That there are factors responsible for non – acceptance of family planning in Urhiephron community
  3. That there are possible ways of improving acceptance and usage of family planning services

5.3 Implication of the Study

This study implies that there are so many factors that are responsible for socio-cultural factor influencing acceptance of family planning among rural women of child bearing age in Urhiephron community which affects or have effect on their health in Urhiephron community which include unwanted pregnancy, increase in mortality rate, increase in STI/STD, HIV/AIDS and increase in population.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations are made to reduce the constraints arising from socio-cultural factors influencing acceptance of family planning among rural women of child bearing age in Urhiephron community in Ughelli South Local Government Area Delta State

  1. Community members should be health educated on the importance of family planning by relevant health agency
  2. Government should create a mass enlightenment campaign to educate the people on the contributory factors responsible for socio-cultural factors influencing acceptance of family planning
  3. Effective and aggressive health education programme should be carryout concerning family planning in order to reduce the challenges arising therein

5.5 Limitation of the Study

The researcher encountered so many challenges in the course of this study such as;

  1. Lack of adequate resources material relating to the topic
  2. Uncooperative attitudes of some of the respondents to express their opinion on the issue on family planning service.
  3. Due to uncooperative attitudes of some of the respondents the researcher took his or her time to explain to them how importance their view will help in this research study
  4. Due to lack of adequate resources material relating to the topic the researcher decided to sources information outside the study area in order to complete the project work.

5.6 Suggestions for Further Studies

  1. The researcher suggested that further research should be done extensively on socio-cultural factor influencing acceptance of family planning among rural women of child bearing age in other communities for proper understanding
  2. Researchers should increase their populations samples so as to get more responses from the respondents on socio-cultural factor influencing acceptance of family planning among rural women of child bearing age
  3. Researchers should investigate the factors responsible for socio-cultural factor influencing acceptance of family planning among rural women of child bearing age.

References

Caufield, E.F, (2013). Population and reproductive health challenges in Eastern and Southern Africa: Policy and Program Implications: London Sliva Printing Press

Coleman, S.T (2012) Attitude of people towards family planning. UK: Vaillant Press

California Department of Health Services Office of Family Planning (2009). Barriers and drivers of modern family planning methods in Kenya. Dissemination workshop held at Pan-Affric Hotel, Nairobi, 18th October, 2009.

Delano, K.L. (2015) Polices on free primary health care: International Organization of scientific Research (IOSR). Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences (OSSR-JHSS).

Hersh, B.K. (2006) Cultural factors affecting family services in our region. GlobalHealth Science Journal 5(4) 76 – 89. 

Hardee, N.S. (2009) Comprehensive approach in health care science. International Journal of Health Science 4(2) 110 – 126.

Lubin, E.R (2011). Research methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches. Nairobi: ACTs

Marshall, A.F. (2011) Contraceptive Technologies: The unmet needs. New York.

Nelson, S.T. (2014). Plan of Action on Sexual Reproductive Health and Rights (Maputo Plan of Action).Adopted by a Special Session of the African Union Conference of Ministers of Health.

Nelson S.T. (2011) Essential methods of family planning. Ibadan: Victor Printing  Press

Osikoya (2013) Evolution of health issues: New York: Guttmacher Institute

Obi, R.S. (2008) Family planning services and its awareness to couples. Imo State University

Obiamaka, J.P. (2016) Contemporary issues in family planning services. Owerri:     Sliver & Co Publisher Nigeria Limited

Roland, J.A. (2015). Elements of education and social science Methods, (2nd ed). Maseno: Kanezja.

Robert, S.G. (2016) Education research: An introduction (4th ed). New York: Guttmacher Institute

Sonfield J.A. (2008).Techniques of Writing Proposals and Reports in Education     and Social Science. Maseno: Kanezja.

WHO (2010) Research surveillance in family planning and health related issues.    North America University press

Wilson M.N. (2010) Progress towards attainment of Education for All (EFA).among nomadic pastoralists: Do home-based variables make a Research on Humanities and social sciences Retrieved from www.iiste.org

Work Bank (2011). Research methods in education. London: George Ltd   Printing Press

 

QUESTIONNAIRE

SECTION B

  1. The women of Urhiephron community aware of usage of family planning services? Agree ( ) Strongly Agree (   ) Disagree (   ) Strongly Disagree (   )
  2. Women of Urhiephron community have ‘positive awareness about family planning services? Agree ( ) Strongly Agree (   ) Disagree (   ) Strongly Disagree (   )
  3. Women of Urhiephron community have negative attitude about the awareness of family planning usage? Agree ( ) Strongly Agree (   ) Disagree (   ) Strongly Disagree (   )
  4. Women of Urhiephron community are aware of the health benefits associated with family planning? Agree ( ) Strongly Agree (   ) Disagree (   ) Strongly Disagree (   )
  5. Poverty is a constraints militating against people’s use of family planning services Agree ( ) Strongly Agree (   ) Disagree (   ) Strongly Disagree (   )
  6. Poor health facilities is a constraints militating against people’s use of family planning services Agree (   ) Strongly Agree (   ) Disagree (   ) Strongly Disagree (   )
  7. Ignorant of the people is a constraints militating against people’s use of family planning services? Agree ( ) Strongly Agree (   ) Disagree (   ) Strongly Disagree (   )
  1. Socio-cultural factors affect acceptance of family planning? Agree ( ) Strongly Agree (   ) Disagree (   ) Strongly Disagree (   )
  2. Effective Government policy will improve acceptance and usage of family planning services? Agree ( ) Strongly Agree (   ) Disagree (   )Strongly Disagree (   )
  1. Government and non-governmental organization improve family planning service? Agree (   ) Strongly Agree (   ) Disagree (   ) Strongly Disagree (   )
  2. Good health facilities will help to improve family planning service? Agree (   ) Strongly Agree (   ) Disagree (   ) Strongly Disagree (   )
  3. Proper health educations to the masses will improve acceptance and usage of family planning services? Agree (   ) Strongly Agree (   ) Disagree (   ) Strongly Disagree (   )

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