Overweight and obesity

Overweight
and obesity are unhealthy health conditions which if not properly managed can
lead to serious medical problems. The most effective way for evaluating
overweight and obesity is by calculating the individual body mass index (BMI). Overweight
can be defined as a body mass index (BMI) ranging from 25 to 30 while obesity
occurs at a BMI value higher than 30.

Signs and symptoms of overweight and obesity
·        
Clothes
feeling tight and needing a large size.
·        
Having
extra fat around the waist.
·        
Heavy
sweating and a feeling of always being hot.
·        
Lack of
energy and constantly feeling tired.
·        
Difficulty
sleeping.
·        
Type 2
diabetes
Causes of overweight and obesity
Overweight
or obesity occurs when an individual eats more calories than the body uses up. However,
there are other factors that also play a role in overweight and obesity. These
include.
·        
Medication: Certain drugs such as steroids and some antidepressants may cause
excessive weight gain.
·        
Psychological factor: Psychological factors also influence eating habit
and overweight or obesity. Many people eat in response to negative emotions
such as sadness or anger.
·        
Illness: Although not as common as many believe, there are some illnesses that
can cause overweight or obesity. These include hormone problems such as
hypothyroidism (poorly acting thyroid slows metabolism, depression and some
viral disease of the brain that can lead to overeating).
·        
Environmental factors: Although genes are an important factor in many
cases of overweight and obesity, a person environmental factor include life
style behaviours such as what a person eat and how active he or she is.
·        
Genetics: Overweight and obesity tends to run in families.
Complication
of overweight and obesity
Overweight
and obesity has far ranging negative effects on health. The health effects
associated with overweight and obesity include:
·        
High blood pressure: Additional fat tissue in the body needs oxygen and
nutrients in order to live, which requires the blood vessels to circulate more
blood to the fat tissue. This increases the workload of the heart because it
must pump more blood through additional blood vessels. More circulating blood
also means more pressure on the artery walls.
·        
Diabetes: Overweight and obesity are the major causes of type 2 diabetes.
·        
Heart disease: Coronary artery disease is more prevalent in people who are overweight
or obese because fatty deposits build up in arteries that supply the heart.
Narrowed arteries and reduced blood flow to the heart can cause chest or a
heart attack.
·        
Joint problems: Overweight or obesity can affect the knees and hips because of the
stress placed on the joints by extra weight.
·        
Cancer: In women, being overweight or obese contributes to an increased risk
for a variety of cancers including breast, colon, gall bladder and uterus. Men
who are obese have a higher risk of colon and prostate cancers.
The role of the family in the control of overweight
and obesity
·        
Family
members should design a programme to monitor the weight of every member of the
family.
·        
They
should know and avoid the food traps that cause over-eating they should try to
keep a journal and write down what they eat, how much they eat, when they eat.
·        
Family
members should eat healthy meals and snacks by focusing  on low calories, nutrient-dense foods such as
fruits, vegetables and whole grain and avoiding saturated fat and limit sweet
and alcohol.
The
role of the community in the control of overweight and obesity
Ø    Community members should design exercise which to
engage people in the community regularly. This could include moderately intense
physical activities include fast walking and swimming.
Ø    Consistent: Stick to your healthy weight plan
during the week.
The role of government in the control of overweight and obesity
Government should engage in massive awareness
campaign to sensitize the people on the importance of healthy living habits
that can reduce the occurrence of overweight and obesity, such as healthy
eating habits, and exercise.
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