Safeguarding Lake Ol Bolossat, Nyandarwa County by exploring the possibility of Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) Scheme

Introduction The state of the world’s waters remains fragile and the need for an integrated and sustainable approach to water resource management is as pressing as ever. Available supplies are under great duress as a result of high population growth, unsustainable consumption patterns, poor management practices, pollution, and inadequate investment in infrastructure and low efficiency … Read more

Evaluation of measures/strategies for the prevention of road carnages major urban and peri-urban hot spots

Introduction Definition of road carnages refer to any event that happens unexpectedly, without deliberate plan/cause or an undesirable or unfortunate happening that occurs unintentionally and usually results in harm, injury, damage, or loss of lives of persons for which compensation or indemnity is legally sought.  Basing this on global general view, the world’s first road … Read more

Population explosion in Mathare slum settlements  and its impacts  on cleaning and maintaining Mathare River

Introduction Many countries have made river restoration their priority because of the increasing awareness of environmental degradation. Over the past 20 years, since the restoration of rivers began, many approaches have been considered, and they have ranged from the idealist objective to re-establish the pre-disturbance aquatic functions and related physical, chemical and biological characteristics, removing … Read more

Investigation into the level of compliance with the solid waste management regulations 2006

Introduction High level of solid waste generation in most world cities poses serious challenges to protecting and promoting desirable human health conditions as envisioned in Chapter 6 of Agenda 21. The chapter focuses on five vital program areas (the necessity to meet primary health care needs, control communicable diseases, protecting vulnerable groups, satisfying urban health … Read more

The quest for effective water conservation: A study its prospects and challenges

Introduction Water is one of the most important necessity in the human life, it is used for different activities in their day to day activities, hence the need for it. Activities involve such as drinking, washing clothes and the household materials, for building purposes, for animal care both drinking and hygiene, for agricultural activities such … Read more

Instrumentalities for the enforcement of compliance on occupational health and safety measures in industries

Introduction Occupational health and safety (OHS) is a multi-disciplinary area that is concerned with the safety, health and welfare of people at the workplace (Ayubu, 2012) It can also protect co-workers, family members, employers, customers, supporters, nearby communities and other members of public affected by workplace environment (Ayubu, 2012). Industrialization has brought in its wake … Read more

Instream sand harvesting and its impacts on water supply

Introduction For thousands of years, sand and gravel have been used globally in the construction of roads and buildings. Today, demand for sand and gravel continues to increase. Sand accumulation as layers of sand deposits in river courses is a dynamic phenomenon. Rivers all over the world are under immense pressure due to various kinds … Read more

Implications of the ever-increasing population of water hyacinth on the fishing industry

Introduction Fresh water bodies constitute a vital component of a wide variety of living environments as integral water resource base in many human societies in the world. They have been regarded as key strategic resources essential for sustaining human livelihood, promoting economic development and maintaining the environment (Uganda National Water Development Report (UNWDR), 2005). Utilization … Read more

Quarrying Activities and its Environmental Health Implications among Inhabitants of Ndarugo Area, Kiambu County, Kenya

Introduction Mining can be described as the extraction of valuable minerals as well as the removal of other of geological materials from the earth. Mining is an activity that has been carried out since the prehistoric times, where stone and other metals were extracted from the earth. The process of mining has to prove profitable … Read more

The pains and gains associated with restoring the Mau Narok Forest, Kenya

Introduction The unique nature of forest ecosystems has long been acknowledged. Forest ecosystems play multiple roles at global as well as local levels: as providers of environmental services to nature in general- and humans in particular- and as sources of economically valued products. They provide ecosystem services such as river flow regulation, flood mitigation, water … Read more

Impacts of Participatory Forest Management (PFM) on Socio-Economic Development and Environmental Conservation

Introduction Worldwide, the inclusion of communities in the management of state-owned or formerly state-owned forest resources has become increasingly common over the last 25 years. Almost all countries in Africa, and many in Asia, are promoting the participation of rural communities in the management and utilization of natural forests and woodlands through some form of … Read more

Climate Variability: A review on how small scale arable farmers are adapting to its impacts (A focus on Chisare Village in Cherangani, Trans-Nzoia East Sub-County, Kenya)

Introduction “One of the biggest obstacles to making a start on climate change is that it has become a cliché before it has even been understood” – Tim Flannery, 2013. For that reason, how can one understand climate change? Planet earth is facing a huge problem named global warming. This is caused by the invisible … Read more

Artisanal stone quarrying activities and its implications to health and the environment

Introduction All over the world there is a realization that quarrying activities has evolved overtime to mining industry that has the potential to provide hither to unparalleled services to management in their efforts to reduce effects of quarrying risks to the human being and the surroundings. This potentially has been turned into a challenge and … Read more

Biogas Technology: Critical factors influencing its choice and adoption among peri-urban residents

Introduction The year 2012 was declared the year of sustainable energy for all by the United Nations in recognition of the importance of energy for sustainable development (UNEP, 2012). This recognition presents an opportunity to raise awareness about the importance of increasing sustainable access to energy, energy efficiency, and renewable energy at the local, regional … Read more

Improving Solid Waste Management Strategies in urban centres, a call for urgent concern

Introduction Solid waste is any material which comes from domestic, industrial and commercial sources arising from human activities which have no value to people who possess it and is discarded as useless. Before, waste disposal did not pose difficulty as habitations were sparse and there was plenty of land. It became problematic with the rise … Read more

Problems of poor water supply and sanitation in uncontrolled residential developments in urban centres

Introduction Due to the rapid population growth and uncontrolled residential development witnessed in most developing countries, the global urban environment is seriously being degraded in terms of service delivery (UN-Water 2007). Water supply and sanitation are the public utilities that have been worst hit by this scenario. These facilities are necessary commodities in household and … Read more

Occupational Safety and Health Practices in Construction Projects: A Prerequisite for a Safe and Healthy Workplace

Introduction The construction industry is formed of establishments primarily engaged in the building of structures or engineering projects like highways and utility systems; establishments primarily engaged in the preparation of sites for new construction and establishments primarily engaged in sub-dividing land for sale as building sites are also included in this sector. The history of … Read more

Ecological and health implications of open pit artisanal gold mining

Introduction The definition of artisanal small scale mining varies from country to country. Variables like investment costs, mine output, labour productivity, and size of concessions, amount of resources, annual sales and levels of technology are used to define it. This research, however, defines artisanal small scale mining as an activity that encompasses small, medium, informal, … Read more

Environmental Health Implications of residential development on urban wetlands

Introduction Historically, the concept of urbanization has been related to specialized industrialization and consequent economic development. Urbanization is a territorial response to structural changes in the economy. Unregulated and unguided urbanization has its own problems as evidenced in the deteriorating environmental conditions of many large cities. Sustainable urban settlements have to be environmentally sound, economically … Read more

Environmental Health Implications of the Southern Bypass Road Construction through Ngong Forest on the African Crowned Eagle, Nairobi County

Introduction According to Norman Meyers in a study for Friends of Earth, 142,000 Km2 were cleared in 1989 and a further 200,000 Km2 severely degraded. He noted that forest loss has increased since 1979 by 90%, Brazil, Indonesia and Zaire (DRC) which had the highest percentage of natural tropical forests, accounted for half of that … Read more

Inadequacies of solid waste management among public, private and community based organisations and its impact on health

Introduction Solid waste is any material which comes from domestic, commercial, and industrial sources arising from human activities; which has no value to people who possess it and is discarded as useless. In the early days, waste disposal did not pose difficulty as habitations were sparse and land was plentiful. Waste disposal became problematic with … Read more

Management of industrial air pollution in industrial area

Introduction Concerns on air pollution caused by industries have been rising over time due to increased industrialization and the effects on the environment. Data from “Air pollution in Europe” (EEA, 1997) shows figures describing the respective production of pollutants by each sector of manufacturing. The EEA study indicated that air pollution is the presence of … Read more

Safeguarding sanitation in high population density Kibera Slums settlements: A public health emergency

Introduction According to Water Aid (2006), approximately 1.1 billion people in the world do not have access to safe water, and another 2.6 billion do not have access to adequate sanitation. In developing countries an estimated 2.2 million people, most of who are children, die annually due to diarrhoea linked to a lack of access … Read more

Socio- economic benefits and environmental impacts of superhighways

Introduction Development is seen as an important component in any country’s vision in the world, however it can have major impacts on the environment, social and economic life of the same countries. According to Schiefelbusch (2010) the environmental impact can be by degrading soils and waterways, altering landscape and destroying biodiversity and habitat. Other problems … Read more