This study to investigate problems encounter university students in promoting writing skills. The main aim of this study to reflect the promoting of writing skills. The data analysis of this study was collected through questionnaire it was design and distributed to (30) second year university students. The respondent to participant in this study this 3 sample selected randomly at Sudan University of Science & Technology – College of Education. The researcher use descriptive – analytical method. The study find out the teaching writing needs in addition to that findings show difficulties that encounter university students. The study recommended teachers should give opportunity to their students practice writing. The study find out the following: 1- Some difficulties that face second year university students in writing skills because writing skills have a sub skill such as grammar and punctuation marks. 2- There are some problems that face second year students in choosing terms and organizing paragraphs and expression. 3- Second year students have no enough strategic studies which enable them to make a good written work.
Writing skill represents crucial point in learning and mastering the language. The fact behind that people of different works of life communicate in different formats on regular bases to negotiate in different written formats on a regular bases to negotiate over a price ,apply for a job, advertise products and services, deliver speech, convey…. etc. The process of writing is seen the result of employing different strategies to manage the composing process which one of the gradual of text. Writing an important skill for English language learner, even though it is the last to be taught in the sequence of skills and the last to receive emphasis
1.1Statements of the problem
As one English language student I noticed that second year university students faced many problems in their learning process particularly in writing English language. This is because; writing is complex process even in the first language. It is even more complicated to write in a foreign language because writing is a means of communication ideas, sought, believes and feelings. Second year university student should master the skill of writing so that they can communicate easily and express themselves clearly. The researcher tries to find out the best and useful techniques that university teachers can adopt to help university students to produce clear and meaningful written work.
1.2 The object of the study
- This study aim to investigate the important of writing skill in the process of education.
- It is an attempt to highlight the problematic areas to find solution.
- It is an attempt to point out the importance points of writing skill.
1.3 Questions of the study
- To what extent second year students do not able to write well-constructed sentences when they write composition?
- To what extent second year students do not use the intended meaning of words when they write a composition?
- To what extent second year students do not use punctuation marks when they write a topic?
1.4 Hypothesis of the study
- Second year students are not able to write well constructed sentences when they write a composition
- Second year students do not use intended meaning of words when they write a composition
- Second year students do not use punctuation marks when they write topic.
1.5 The significance of the study
This study will be of great significance to investigate the problems that face second year student on promoting writing skills, and to point out the problematic areas to find solutions.
1.6 The limits of study
This study will be limited to Sudan University of science and technology –College of Education – second year students -2015-2016.
1.7 The methodology of study
The researcher will use the description analytical, quantitative and quantitative method ;as well as the questionnaire and test tools in collecting relevant data and information to this study.
Literature Review and Previous Studies
This chapter is concerned with review of some literature relevant to this study. Students of English as a foreign Language undergo several difficulties in their learning process, particularly in writing which is one of the most difficult skills. This is because writing comprises al the aspects and devices of the language such as syntax, semantics, lexical terms, punctuation… etc. the role of writing is much more important messages, views and ideas. When students write, they develop confidence and sense of power over the language that none of the other skills is likely to produce
2.1 What is writing?
Writing is the act of shaping letters making marks on the surface of some kind. Byrne (1999:45) points out:
“Writing in its simples meaning is the act of forming the graphic symbols (letters) making marks on flat surface of some kind. These graphic symbols or letters should be arranged in order to form sentences. Generally, writing is a real process of communication. It is the sense of being in contact with people who are part of particular audience in a textual medium through the use of a set of signs or symbols (known as writing system)”.
2.2 The Nature of Writing
Writing is different from speaking when we write words to connect expression in order to make meaningful of ideas Broughton and et.al (1980:11) explain:
“Writing is unlike speaking, when we write we are engaged in an activity which is usually at the same time both private and public. It is private because the act of composition is by its nature solitary, but it is public in that most writing is intended for an audience, often one which is extremely difficult to define. The act of writing differs from that of speaking in that it is less spontaneous and more permanent, and the resources which are available for communication are fewer because we cannot as we do in conversation interact with the listeners and adapt as we go along. For this reason, the conversation and the language which is used tend to be standardized.
Broughton and et.al (1980:23) points out, “if the goal of the English teacher is to enable students to produce accurate and appropriate written English, so these aspects should be considered”. Mechanical problems with the scripts of English. Problems of accuracy of English grammar and lexis. Problems of relating the style of writing to the demands of particular situation. Problems of developing ease and comfort in expressing what need to be said. However, writing that occurs in the foreign language classroom is primarily concerned so much with developing writing skills as with reinforcing the teaching of particular structures. This very often consists of copying down sentences in order to establish patterns which have just been orally presented. While an activity may have a genera teaching purpose, it is distinct in intention for work which aims at teaching students to write effectively in English”.
2.3 Writing Complexity
To make complexity of writing to choose stranger words, Biber (1988:30) argues:
“What makes the writing process complex is the selection of words and how to string these words to form meaningful sentences, and how to put these sentences together to make a meaningful paragraph. So, the problems of writing lie in the selection of suitable types of words and sentences: simple sentence, complex sentence, compound sentence, linking words or the use of cohesive devices. A good paragraph should include these elements: clarity, coherence, cohesion and unity. All these elements make the researcher concludes in saying that the writing is so complex process”.
2.4 Time for writing
Time for writing to have quiet enough time in order to improve writing by intensive reading Hedge (1988:40) states:
“There is wide held belief that in order to be a good writer a student needs to read a lot of texts. Intensive reading benefits students to be exposed to models of different text types so that they can develop ability of well-formed written texts. This situation is exacerbated in many classrooms where writing is mainly relegated to a homework activity. It is perhaps not surprising that writing often tends to be an out-of class activity; many teachers feel that class time, often scarce, is best devoted to aural/oral work and homework to writing, which can then be done at the students own pace.
Hedge in (1988:46) also points out:
“being that many students would benefit from classroom practice in writing for which the teacher can prepare tasks with carefully worked out stages of planning, drafting, and revision. If poorer writers feel some measure of success in the supportive learning environment of the classroom, they will begin to develop the confidence they need to write more at home and so start on the upward spiral motivation and improvement”.
2.5 Goals of the Writing Programmer:
Broughton and et.al (1980:30) argue:
“Within most language teaching courses, the language is taught by sentence pattern, vocabulary fitted in accordance to the situations used to illustrate the sentence pattern being presented. Even in course designed in different lines, there is a tendency for language to be presented as a number of separate items, related to situation or communicative act. So when writing, is used to reinforce work which has been initially presented, it is reinforced either at direct sentence level, or in relation to dialogue or situations which are not those usually expressed through writing, it is the responsibility of the writing program to train students to produce sequence of sentences which express their meaning most effectively. Since both when we speak and when we write, we work not through isolated sentences but through blocks of sentences, this should be more natural activity than using exercises, which consists of lists of sentences without any context. Therefore, the ability to put sentences together effectively needs systematic encouragement, and sometimes explicit teaching, and part of the work in a wiring course involves teaching students to be rules of discourse in English.
If we define the main aims of writing course as developing appropriate ranges of style coherently and easily used, teachers may well feel the traditional concerns of spelling and basic grammatical errors are being neglected.
In fact, while these are of some significance, and should be corrected by students as they learn to write good English, correction of these alone will not ensure that satisfactory English writing results. So a good writing course should help the students to correct their mistakes in avoiding mistakes. Therefore, we need to fit help with correction into a framework of more positive development of writing skills”
2.6 The Reason for Writing
There are many reasons for writing such as improving students skills to know level of skills among the students. Hedge (1988:22) points out
“That classroom is undertaken as an aid to learning for example, to consolidate the learning of new structures or vocabulary, also to help students remember new items of language. In this context, the role of writing is different from its role in any other subject; it allows students to see how they are progressing and to get feedback from the teacher, and it allows teachers to monitor and diagnose problems. Much of this writing is at the sentence level, but successfully writing depends on more than the ability to produce clear and correct sentences. So teachers should be interested in tasks which help students to write whole pieces of communication, to link and develop information, ideas, or arguments for a particular reader or group of readers. Therefore, writing tasks which have whole texts their outcome relates appropriately to the ultimate goal of learners who need to write English in their social, educational, or professional lives. Some of their students know already what they need to be able to write in English. Others may be uncertain about the nature of their future needs. So their role of teachers is to build communicative potential.
Hedge (1988:31) points out
Many secondary students have to prove their competence in English by producing compositions for examinations. So in Hedges experience there have been substantial numbers of students who have no identifiable needs, present or future , for written English, but who enjoy writing, who are motivated to use their language resources in producing stories, reviews essays, and even poems simply to practice and improve their English, thus by encouraging the production of the whole texts in the classroom, teachers can provide for these different motivation for writing”.
2.7 A Basic Methodology for Written Work
Broughton et al., (1980:40) states
“In dealing with written work, there are a number of ways in which the teacher can bring task to the level of the class. This means making the exact solution to the writing problem more and explicit the lower down the educational system we go. So the teacher can grade the task in the following ways: Limit the length of the class preparation for the task. Increase the amount of class preparation for the task. Provide guidance on the final form of written work, for example with picture prompts, or memory prompts as result of the oral preparation. Encourage students to collaborate in the actual process of writing. Allow cross-checking between the draft stage and writing of the final product. Limit the complexity of the writing task itself. Demand that the task be completed either slowly or quickly. So any combination of these methods can be used to bring the task to the level of the class. These strategies provide the teacher with ways of organizing his work in the class”.
2.8 Difficulties of writing
Brown (1994:25) argues
“Writing is, often, a difficult activity for many people, both in the mother tongue and a foreign language. And if teachers want to make writing easier for their students, they must understand the reason for the difficulty and give appropriate guidance and help”.
2.9.1 Psychological Difficulty
Ali Ahmed (2013) states
“Speech is the natural and normal way of communicating. Usually, there are at least two people face-to-face, they interact and exchange roles. Writing on the other hand, is a lonely activity; the writer is alone in his head when he is writing. The writer does not have the stimulus of another participant, or the feedback that comes from face-to-face interaction. The writer has to find his own ideas and express them on paper very clearly, and logically.Teachers can reduce this difficulty by giving the students plenty of group preparation, planning and discussion before they begin to write.”
2.9.2 Linguistic Difficulty
Ali Ahmed (2013) states
“Speech is very rich in signal; it carries information of many kinds in many different ways; stress, intonation, speed, loudness, pause, expression on face, movement of the body. Writing does not have these ways of communication except the little that we can show by punctuation. For this reason, the language of writing must be clearer and more logically put together than the language of speech. Teachers can reduce this difficulty by revising the vocabulary and structures that students need for a writing task before they begin to write”
2-10 The Need for Writing
Writing is needed in our life needs such as letters education. Grabe and Kaplan (1996, p3) states:
“The need for writing in modern literate societies is much more than is realized. When one examines everyday worlds, one finds people engaged in many kinds of writing, seen as routine, commonplace, or unimportant. These varieties, however, all reflect the ability to control the written medium of language to some extent. It is fair to say that most people on a typical day practice some forms of writing. And virtually everyone in every walk of life completes an enormous number of forms. In addition, many people write for reasons unrelated to their work: letters, messages, shoping lists, budget, etc…”.
Reid (1989) reports:
“People write to discover what is on their minds, figure things out, vent frustration, shape ideas, express feelings, recount experiences, raise questions, imaging the future, create new forms – and simply for pleasure. They also write when they are required to in school to demonstrate knowledge and solve problems. Writing helps to create a view of the world, influenced by social problems and ways of thinking of particular social groups (Hyland, 1997, Kuhn, 1970, MacDonald 1994). Thus writing is an engagement in a social process where the production of texts reflects methodologies, arguments and rhetorical strategies constructed to engage colleagues and persuade them with the claim made. Academic writing has therefore been seen as the use of various devices to enhance persuasiveness, drawing on either rhetoric or impersonal objectivity, or one of the reflexive awareness to appropriate frame disciplinary submission.
Writing, as stated by Zemach and Islam (2006), is an important form of communication in day-to-day life, but it is especially important in secondary school and university. It is also one of the most difficult skills to master in both first language and a second/foreign language. Students find it challenging to find ideas to include in their writing, and each culture has its own style for organizing academic writing. Learning to write well needs a lot of practice and patience. Students need clear guidance, positive feedback and interesting ideas to write about.
Writing ability depends on formal instructions to develop and improve. That is humans are not genetically predisposed to acquire and master writing abilities. This point is illustrated clearly by Liberman and Liberman (1990) they must be culturally (rather than biologically) transmitted in every generation, whether in schools or in any other environment. Writing is technology a set of skills which must be practiced and learned through experience. Defining writing in such a way help to explain why writing of complex nature causes some problems for students.
The skills required do not come naturally, but are gained through conscious effort and practice. The task of programme designers and teachers is not easy. Programme designer are expected to provide the material which incorporate the activities needed for enhancing and fostering students ability to write purposefully. And the task of teachers is to skillfully translate these materials into appropriate learning behavior through classroom teaching”.
2-11 The Nature of Writing
Writing is a very complex process. It is a process in which learners should know the purpose of their writing, think carefully and plan effectively to produce an accepted piece of work. Celce-Murcia and Olshtain (2000) claim that a skilled writer writes often and for a variety of purposes, does not necessarily find writing process easy. Many such writers report on the difficulties they encounter in sitting down to initiate a writing or to carry out the final reformation of what has already been written in a draft form. For Gabrielatos (2002) developing writing is not a matter of absorbing the lexical and grammatical system of a language.
Writing involves more than the accuracy of grammar and the mastery of a good range of vocabulary. What is needed in this respect more than putting a string of words together. Students must consider the logical development of the ideas they discuss in writing. Writing should be coherent; each point leads to another related point. They must think of all the elements needed to create a text which is coherent and purposeful.
The complexity of the purpose of writing, according to Rivers (1975), makes people avoid expressing themselves in writing. She made this point in her discussion of the differences between speech and writing, where she reported that many who know how to “write things down” in their native language avoid expressing themselves in writing and in personal letters. To write to communicate a message, isolated in place and time, is an art which requires consciously directed effort and deliberate choice of language.
Hedge (1988) claims: that writing poses a great problem because a writer is unable to exploit all the devices available to a speaker. (e.g. gesture, body movement, facial expression, pitch and tone of voice, stress and hesitations) a writer has to compensate for this disadvantage. That is, the writer and the reader are separated; the writer works out something to be read later. He/she does not have the opportunity to receive feedback.
Penny Ur (2000) puts this feature of writing as follows: “The act of writing of a text is detached in time and space from its reading; the writer normally works alone, and may not be acquainted with his or her reader.
2-12 Approaches to writing
There are several approaches to consider in the field of EFL writing. It is not necessarily to claim that one approach is better than the others. The choice of a particular approach depends on the type of the students, the text type being studied, the school system and many other factors. The discussion here concentrate on the most five salient approaches the product approach the process approach, the genre-based approach, the cognitive approach and the communicative approach.
2-12-1 The product Approach:
Davis (1986) claims: that the product that the product approach to writing emphasizes the need for a written language which is used for the purpose of communicating what the writer has done and discover in his/her field of study. This type of writing enables learners to know about the world and learn language through writing. A writing product reflects a revision of the writer’s idea and the linguistic choice for expression idea. This entails that this approach seeks to prepare the students for communicating what they already acquired fostering students’ knowledge of the world.
Jordan (1997) argues that the product approach is combined with the functional approach in order to train the students to express a variety of language functions through writing. Both Jordan (1997) and Davis (1986) see that the product approach aims at enabling learners to communicate via the target language. The activities dictated by this approach, according to Jordan, focus on some of the main language functions commonly found in academic writing. In addition attention is given to the organization of writing, its structure, cohesion, and style.
In order to familiarize learners with the sort of language that they are likely to use, a model is provided and various exercises are undertaken. Students are the asked to produce a similar or parallel text. This tendency is obvious in the words of Grabe and Kaplan (1996), who report patterns of logical arrangement as definition, classification, composition and contrast. Then the students are told to write an essay imitating (or approximating) a given pattern. Essay are written in one draft, and errors are corrected by keying to a writing handbook which provides exercises and answers on various aspects of surface grammar, Grabe and Kaplan conclude that the focus in writing classes is on the form of the written product rather than on how learner should approach the process of writing.
The procedures adopted in this approach do not allow earners to create their own writing. It views writing as a model – based process; learners have to act according to a specific model so that they can develop good writing habits. As mentioned above, texts are provided for the learners to study, analyze their features and produce similar texts. This makes it clear that the product approach views writing in a foreign language as a mechanical process of habit formation. Pincas (1982) puts this point clearly by assuming that the learner is not allowed to create at all. She assumes that the use of language in this approach is manipulation of fixed patterns; and that these patterns are learned by imitation. The students are not allowed to create their own texts until they have thoroughly learned these patterns.
Furthermore, the product approach does not emphasize the various processes and stages involved in any writing to arrive at the end product. The emphasis is on the final draft. Thus, the approach never explains the stages that that learners should consider when learning to write in a foreign language. As White (1988), Jordan (1997) and Escholz (1980) state, the shortcoming of this approach is that the very nature of its sequence provides little or no insight into the actual processes involved in managing to arrive at the final product. Teachers can adopt this approach, for example, when they wish to make students familiar with the conventions of writing. Teachers can provide students with specific texts and then ask them to pay attention to the style in which the models are written, the use of rhetorical form, grammar and vocabulary usage. This procedure should not be taken as the aim behind teaching writing, but as a procedure which can enhance learning writing lexical cohesion through collocation is the most difficult type of cohesion to analyze because items which collocate involve neither repetition, synonym, superordinate, nor mention of general items. What is important is that the items said to collocate share the same lexical environment.
Speech and writing
The process of speech and writing are completely different from each other in practice O’Grady and etal (1997:35) explain:
“Speech and writing are different in both origin and practice. However, our ability to use the language is old. But writing is a symbolic representation of language in graphic form, is a comparatively recent cultural development. Anyhow, the contrast between speech and writing comes into sharper focus when we consider that spoken language is acquired without specific formal instruction, whereas writing must be taught and learned through deliberate effort. There are groups of people in the world of today, as well as individuals in every literate society, who are unable to write. While spoken language comes naturally to human beings, writing does not.
As different as they are speech and writing share one major characteristic: just as spoken language shows an arbitrary link between sound and meaning, the various symbols and techniques used in written language show an arbitrary link between symbol and sound”.
The only one way for promoting writing skills is the intensive reading of books and reference Lyons and Heasly (1987:63) states:
“One approach to improve writing skills is through wide reading. Reading is essentially an attempt to discover the writer’s goal. To help readers achieve an understanding of his/her goal, a writer must use some general framework to support whatever he/she trying to make. However, you can best appreciate how they can be varied to achieve different goals by studying other people’s writings. In addition, you can best evaluate their relative effectiveness by examining how other writers use them.”
Moreover, the most obvious way you can help yourself become a good writer is by writing. We strongly suggest that in addition to completing the task in study writing you also keep your own personal journal. Buy yourself an extra notebook, and try to write down some ideas everyday, in English about any things that interest you. Write down your opinion in life, love, the writing class, etc… As your write, do not worry too much about putting your ideas in order, just let them flow; you will be surprised at what you will learn about your own thoughts, attitudes and feeling. Do not worry about length; just keep going until the ideas stop, in words, then you will surprised yourself by producing pages and pages of writing. The main purpose of this stage is to find out what you know; feel, etc… about the topic in hand (Lyons &Heasly 1987)”.
2.12 Writing Based on a Text
The text model for writing can motivate the students to get ways for good writing
Doff in (1988:11) describes:
“A text can be used as a model for writing. This type of writing activity can give the students guidelines for writing and help them to write effectively for example: Students read a short text that could be used: students read a description of a car, and then write description of other cars from notes; students read a description of room, then write a description of another room shown in a picture”.
2-13 Coherence in Writing
The concept of coherence in writing, as stated by Grabe and Kaplan has traditionally been accepted as a component of writing research and instruction. In the last twenty years however, researchers in psychology and linguistics have studied coherence to understand how texts are interpreted as coherent and how language structures are controlled. Coherence involves attributing sense to a piece of writing. In other words it is the quality of creating a unified and solid text which makes understanding and interpretation easy for the reader. Thornbury (2005) points out that coherence is the capacity of a text to make sense. An incoherent text does not make sense, however, closely connected its individual sentences might be. Coherence is the quality that the reader derives from text.
Beck et al., (1991) argues that coherence as a theoretical construct in text structure refers to the underlying relations that hold between assertions (or propositions) and how these assertions contribute to the overall discourse theme (or macro-structure). This set of relations assumes that coherent text will be unified by one overarching theme, whether stated or implicit. It is coherence in text structure which allows the reader to build a model of comprehension (Garnham 1991, Singer 1990). Thus it is the responsibility of the writer to attach the aspect of coherence to the text he/she is composing in order to convey the message in a way that meets the reader’s expectations. Planning and organizing ideas is a crucial factor in this regard. Marianne and Elite state that planning ahead, organizing ideas and propositions, providing connections and support, and constantly revising the text to make it more “reader-based” are some of the ways in which a writer crates coherence in a written text.
The writer who wishes to communicate his/her thoughts to the readers successfully must create a coherent piece of writing. Developing this skill is partly the responsibility of the teacher. Teachers have to play an important role in helping students to become good writers. This matter is clearly illustrated by Celce-Mucia and Olshtain (2000) who state that a writer who undertakes the task of creating a written text for communication purpose is faced with the need to organize his/ her thoughts into a sequence which makes sense. It is the responsibility of writer to produce a text that will be coherent to the potential reader. While teachers are expected to help with effective writing strategies, these strategies involve considerations of extratextual features that relate to the background knowledge of the reader and interatextual features that the writer must build in the text in order to ensure coherence.
Thornbury (2005) points out: that coherence is usually approached from two levels: micro and the macro. At the micro-level, the readers have certain expectations of how the proposition (the meaning) of a sentence is likely to be developed. When these expectations are met, the emerging text will seem to be coherent. At the macro-level coherence is enhanced if a) the reader can easily discern what the text is about, b) the text is organized in a way that answers reader’s likely questions and c) the text is organized in a way that is familiar to the reader.
Brown and Yule (1983) following Widdowson (1973) suggest that coherence is the result of conventionalized knowledge and sequences which a reader/hearer will be able to call upon to impose a coherent frame onto a message. Yule and Brown continue that coherence is essentially the creation of the reader rather than a product of the text. Brown and Yule (ibid) argue that coherence is not created in text it self, but in the reader’s ability to call upon certain shared conventional knowledge. Thus, one can claim that coherence is a highly cognitive process. This view on coherence can be seen in the theory of ‘relevance’ where relevance determines the coherence of a particular text. Smith (1989) argues that it is the principle of relevance that determines how coherent a message is. The basis of the theory assumes a general cognitive processing principle that human beings are designed to see relevance in texts. Readers depend on their socio-cultural knowledge to judge what is relevant and what is not. As de Beaugrande (1980) notes that the question of how people know what is relevant is a special case of how people know what is going on in the world at all.
Lautamatti (1990) states that creating coherence in a written text depends on the reader’s knowledge of the world. He states that, (cite in Marianne and Elite), comprehension of the text can be established in the mind of the reader who perceives a connecting thread among the propositions presented in the text and relates it to his/her own knowledge of the world. This type of coherence is reflected in the cohesive features of the text such as appropriate use of referential ties, lexica chains, and conjunctions or transitional expressions.
2.14 Writing a Summary
The summary of writing should be well- selected after reading the whole written work, because reflect general idea of the work Brandon (2004:70) defines
A summary as rewritten shortened version of a piece of writing in which you use your own wording to express the main ideas. Learning to summarize effectively will help you in many ways. Summary writing reinforces comprehension skills in reading. It requires you to discriminate among the ideas in the target reading passage. Summaries are usually written in a form of a well designed paragraph. Frequently, they are used in collecting materials for research papers and in writing conclusion to essays. However, the guidelines for writing effective summary can be as follow”.
- Cite the author and title of the text.
- Reduce the length of original by about two-third, although the exact
- reduction will vary depending on the content of the original.
- Concentrate the original wording without changing the idea.
- Do not add ideas (even if you have an abundance of related information).
- Do not include any personal comments (that is, do not use I referring to yourself).
- Seldom use quotations. (If you use quotation, however, enclose them in quotation marks).
- Use some author tags (according to York” or “the author explains”) to remind the reader(s) that you are summarizing the material of another
2.15 The structure of the Summary
Structure of the summary should be centered on key idea of written work McDougal et al., (1982 2) argue:
“The structure of the summary centered on the main idea, a summary lists the relevant information that supports that idea. It expresses the tone of the original passage”.
Steps for Writing Summary
There are important steps for writing effective summary. First, read the passage to be summarized.
Step 1: Locate the important points
Before you can write your summary, you must first understand what the writer is trying to say. Reread the passage to determine the main idea and locate the important points.
Step 2: Reduce the information
A complete list of the important details in the passage would be almost as long as the passage itself. Therefore, you want to look for ways to reduce or alienate unnecessary details, examples and repetitions. Also work on shortening long phrases and turning whole sentences into a minimum set of words. Once you have reduced the information, you can draft your summary. Make sure you convey the main point of the original text and present the supporting point in the same order. Also be careful to write the summary on your own words.
Step 3: Revise the Summary
After you finish your draft, check to see that it includes all the important ideas of the original. You may find a few remaining details that can be omitted without losing any of the basic meaning. Revise your summary until it’s about one-third the length of the original. Your final version should give all the essential information in a way that the reader can use without referring to the original. As a final step, proofread your summary and make a clean copy (McDouga and et.al, 1989:112)”.
2.16 What is a paragraph?
Is sequences of sentences connect with one topic
Idrees and Hago (2006:86) state:
“A paragraph is a set of related sentences dealing with a single topic. To be as effective as possible, a paragraph should contain each of the following: unity, coherence, topic sentence, and adequate development. Thus, all of these qualities have common characteristics. Using and adapting them to your individual purpose will help you construct effective paragraphs”.
2.17 Previous Studies
Previous studies were carried out on the area of writing tasks to investigate the failure of students to produce successful writing. So revising the contribution of some other researchers is important for having a clear picture which helps for giving suggestions and contributions of some other researchers in the area of teaching writing to EFL, ESL Learners. Ali Ahmed (1999) conducted a research on “Problems of English Language Teaching in high secondary schools in the Sudan ” at Khartoum University.
The objectives of this study are to identify and analyze the problems facing English language teachers, and find out whether teachers of English in secondary school received training and to identify the problems of teaching in secondary schools in teacher competence in English and training program. To collect, data the researcher used two instruments, questionnaire for teachers and a test for students.
The result of this study shows that most of the teachers are unqualified and few of the were graduated from faculties of education, objectives of teaching English are not clear to 40% of the population, a number of teachers notice that: English programme in secondary school does not prepare the students for life. Teachers use different methods of teaching, visits of supervision by the inspectors to schools are ineffective.
FawziEltayeb (2010) conducted a study under the title “Analysis of pertinacious Common Errors in the writing Performance of EFL learners in Sudan” at Sudan University of Science and Technology to investigate the common errors which are committed by Sudanese learners in writing skills and their causes. To collect data the study adopts the analytical descriptive approach. The researcher used two instruments. The first is an interview for university teachers. The second tool includes the students’ answer sheets of the examination of the writing performance of the academic years 2006/2007 ,2007/2008 and 2008/2009
The results of the study show that most students had problems in writing, because of weak grasp of language habits, interference of culture and mother tongue, learning strategies, insufficient activities and practice. Adam Arbab (2010) conducted a study on “Evaluating Teaching Writing Skill in Sudanese Secondary Schools “at Sudan University of Science and Technology.
The main aims of study were to evaluate teaching writing in SPINE series, book 4, 5 and 6, the activities, the materials and teaching strategies. Three instruments were used for data collection: Two questionnaires for teachers and pupils, textbooks analysis and classroom observations.
The finings of this study showed that pupils were not able to express themselves (writing) in English due to the poor and inadequate writing activities presented in the textbooks investigated, in addition to the lack of authentic materials in teaching writing, large classes and that little emphasis was given to the teaching of writing. The study recommended that there is a need for further refining of the writing activities in Spine and corporation of authentic materials; particularly materials for developing writing.
Abdelnasir Babo (2011) conducted a study on the “influence of Vocabulary Warnness on Developing EFL learners’ writing Skills in secondary level” at Sudan University of Science and Technology. The main aims of the study are to find out what hinders the learners to engage in writing using the new lexical items, to discover the reason of behind learners’ failure to choose the correct lexical items for writing and to draw the attention of both teachers and learners to the importance of semantic properties of lexical items in writing. To collect data, the researcher used two questionnaire for teachers and students; also two reading and writing tests were designed for secondary school students.
The main findings of this study show that teachers do not equip students with techniques for developing broad and varied vocabulary for their writing ability; the syllabus dos not put emphasis on the development of learning and teaching vocabulary which results in effective writing. It also aims to give opportunities to study reinforce and practice different aspects of word learning and create activities from their own to integrate vocabulary teaching to writing tasks.
The above studies are related to the researcher’s study because they investigate important areas in the field of teaching and improving writing for EFL and ESL learners. They aimed to diagnose the students’ errors and their causes, overcome the difficulties that face learners in writing and encourage them to write effectively and skillfully.
Methodology of study
This chapter is devoted to the methodology of research, the researcher adopts descriptive, statistical and analytical approach; thus the researcher designs one questionnaire for students in order to reflect good result, these can help in developing or enhances the problems encountering students in promoting writing skills. The questionnaire is designed for Sudan University Students College of education who are specialized in English language.
3.1Tools of study:
The data needed for the study is collected through the use of questionnaire.
3.2 The questionnaire:
The Questionnaire is designed for Sudan universally students college of education, for student at Sudan university of science and technology –college of education–second year.
3.3The validity of questionnaire
Judged to be valid because it is distribute to Sudan University –College of Education students, they made useful changes and addition and participate in final form of the questionnaire. By their advice and comments finally they agree on the face, content and structure validity of the questionnaire.
3.4 The Reliability of student questionnaire
The questionnaire was distributed to thirty students and they understand is easily and responded to it.
3.5 The population of students’ questionnaire
The population of students’ questionnaire is students of English language at Sudanese University of Science and Technology-College of Education second level.
3.6 The sample of students’ questionnaire
The sample is thirty students from Sudan University of Science and Technology- College of education
3.7 The application of the questionnaire
The questionnaire had been distributed to Sudan University Students and gathered after they have answered it.
In this chapter the researchers have given full description of the research tools which were used in the study. The next chapter will be devoted to data analysis, results and discussions.
This chapter is devoted to present analysis and discussion of the results of data, with their interpretation. The information followed by questionnaire of the research hypotheses. used on these results and the researcher adopts the descriptive, analytical method to analyze the subject in the test.
4.1 Data Analysis and Discussion of Results
This chapter presents data analysis and the result after complete the processing of analysis and find the findings and recommendations.
According to above table observe that there are (4) students in the study’s sample with percentage 13.3% have strongly agree and there are (14) students with percentage 46.6% have agree and (2) students with percentage 6.6% have No applicable about that (6) students with percentage 20% have disagree and there are (4) students with percentage 13.3% have strongly disagree about that.
From above table observe that there are (3) students with percentage 10% have strongly agree as sample and there are (14) students with percentage 46.6% have agree and (9) students with percentage 30% have No applicable and also there are (2) students with percentage 6.6% have disagree and about that (2) students with percentage 6.6% have strongly disagree about that.
According to above table observe sheet there are (10) students with percentage 33.3% have strongly agree and also (8) students with percentage 26.6% have agree about that and there are (2) students with percentage 6.6% have No applicable have not sun that (7) students with percentage 23.3% have disagree and (3) students with percentage 10% have strongly disagree about that.
From above table observe that table shows that there are (3) students with percentage 10% have strongly agree and (10) students with percentage 33.3% have agree and also have (5) students with percentage 16.6% have No applicable addition to that and there are (7) students with percentage 23.3% have disagree and about that there are (5) students with percentage 6.6% have strongly disagree about that analysis.
From above table observe that there are (7) students with percentage 23.3% have strongly agree and in addition to that analysis (8) students with percentage 26.6% have agree and also (6) students with percentage 20% have No applicable and about that also (5) students with percentage 16.6% have disagree for addition to that and there are (3) students with percentage 10% have strongly disagree.
From above table shows that there are (4) students with percentage 13.3% have strongly agree and there are (10) students with percentage 33.3% have agree and in addition to that (8) students with percentage 26.6% have No applicable about that and there are (2) students with percentage 6.6% have disagree and (6) students with percentage 20% have strongly disagree.
From above table shows that there are (4) students as sample of study with percentage 13.3% have strongly agree and also (9) students with percentage 30% have agree and about that (4) students with percentage 13.3% have No applicable about that also (8) students with percentage 26.6% have disagree and (5) students with percentage 16.6% have strongly disagree.
According to above table shows that there are (5) students with percentage 16.6% have strongly agree and (8) students with percentage 26.6% have agree and about that (5) students with percentage 16.6% have No applicable in additional to that (7) students with percentage 23.3% have disagree about that (5) students with percentage 16.6% have strongly disagree.
According to above table observe shows that there are (4) students with percentage 13.3% have strongly agree and (6) students with percentage 20% have agree and also (10) students with percentage 33.3% have No applicable and also (6) students with percentage 20% have disagree and in addition to that (4) students with percentage 13.3% have strongly disagree.
From above table observe that there are (6) students with percentage 20% have strongly agree and also that from above (5) students with percentage 16.6% have agree and (5) students with percentage 16.6% have No applicable and about that also (7) students with percentage 23.3% have disagree and in addition (7) students with percentage 23.3% have strongly disagree.
According to above table shows that (4) students with percentage 13.3% have strongly agree and about that (6) students with percentage 20% have agree and also (2) students with percentage 6.6% have No applicable and also (9) students with percentage 30% have disagree and (9) students with percentage 30% have strongly disagree.
According to above table observe shows that there are (7) students with percentage 23.3% have strongly agree and in additional that (8) students with percentage 26.6% have agree and addition to sheet (7) students with percentage 23.3% have No applicable and also (4) students with percentage 13.3% have disagree and (4) students with percentage 13.3% have strongly disagree.
Test first hypothesis
The student of second year do not able to unite cons tree feed sentences this find out when they attempt to unite compotation.
Test Second hypothesis
Second year students have problems with intending meaning because have completed problem with meaning of words when they attempted to write composition.
Test Third hypothesis
According to the second hypothesis students have real problems with use punctuation marks when they stink to select topic how to constructed in terms of topic.
The present study has found some significant results concerning strategies of promoting writing skills that improve the mentality of students.
- Most university students encounter difficulties in writing skills because writing is combining a number of the subskills of language such as: language grammar, punctuations.
- Students encounter with the problems in choosing correct lexical items and organizing the writing in cohesive and coherent paragraph and writing composition.
- The students don’t have well teacher to provide them with strategies that enable them to develop their writing.
- EFL learners lack to strategies required to producing well organized and writing.
- Teachers of universities should give their students activities to practice in order to promote their writing skills.
- The researcher recommends that university teachers should be well trained and qualified to help their students and to develop their abilities.
5.3The researcher proposes some further studies to be beneficial for students
- The difficulties that encounter university students in using proposition in writing text.
- The problems that encounter universities students and writing composition.
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