The purpose of this study is to analyse the factors influencing the successful implementation of projects initiated in secondary schools particularly the Public Secondary Schools in Baringo District. The general objective of this study is to investigate, factors that contribute to effective and successful implementation of projects in public Secondary Schools. The specific objectives includes to determine to how the availability of funds contribute towards successful implementation of projects, to examine the effects of managerial skills of the personnel on the implementation of the projects, to find out the extent to which timeframes and planning influences implementation of the said projects in public schools, and to find out the extent to which stakeholders’ contribution affect the successful implementation of projects in public secondary schools in Baringo District. Chapter three provides the research design and methodology. The study will be carried out in Baringo District which has 42 registered public secondary schools. The study sample will comprise of 21 public Secondary Schools in Baringo district. All Principals of the 21 sampled schools will comprise the study respondents who were chosen using the simple random sampling as a sampling design. Principals are the overall managers of the school’s activities therefore this study give them a priority. The study uses primary and secondary data. The primary data will be collected through the use of questionnaires; on the other hand, secondary data is sourced from literature review and from the ministry of education publications. The researcher will use both qualitative and quantitative data analysis technique to analyse the collected data. Data analysis involves the interpretation of information obtained from the respondents. The use of descriptive statistics comprising of frequency tables, graphs and charts. Findings will then be compiled into a report and a conclusion drawn. Data will be presented in tables, graphs and charts and analysed using descriptive statistics
DEFINITION OF TERMS
- Implementation: It’s the process of ensuring that what has been planned is done or executed.
- Project: refers to a set of coordinated activities with a definite starting and finishing point, undertaken by an individual or an organization to meet specific objectives within a defined schedule, cost and performance parameters.
- Project Management: it is the process that establishes the standard techniques and tools to ensure that requirements are well defined and reflect end user performance needs. It can also refer to the application of knowledge, tools and techniques to project activities in order to meet the stakeholders’ needs and expectation.
- Project Manager: this refers to the personnel in charge of integrating and controlling all contributions and guides the project team to successfully complete the project.
- Goal: Refers to what an organization or institution wishes to achieve in the relevant time span.
- Facilities: School plants including laboratories, libraries and other items required for learning and teaching process
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
This chapter consists of historical background, background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions, significance of the study, limitations of the study, scope of the study and conceptual framework
1.1 Background of the study
The past several decades have been marked by rapid growth in the use of project management as a means by which organizations achieve their objective. In the past, most projects were external to the organization, but the growth in the use of projects lately has primarily been in the area of projects internal to organization: developing a new product, opening a new branch improving the services provided to customers. Successfully executing internal project is satisfying in that the organization substantially improves its ability to execute more efficiently and effectively resulting in enhancing its own competitive strength. Project management provides an organization with powerful tools that improve its ability to plan, implement, and control its activities as well as the way in which it utilizes its people and resources. (Meredith et al., 2010).
The Project Management Institute defined a project as a “temporary endeavour undertaken to create a unique product or service” (Project Management Institute 2004). There are a rich variety of projects to be found in our society. Projects are one of the principal ways of improving our world. Project management has become one of the most popular tools for organizations both public and private to improve internal operations, respond rapidly to external opportunities, achieve technical breakthrough and more robustly manage the challenges arising from their market environment. As never before, companies as well as institutions of learning face competition and need to pursue commercial opportunities, therefore they must modify and introduce products and services constantly, respond to customers as fast as possible and maintain competitive cost and operating levels (Pinto 2007).
Projects represent a special type of undertaking by an organization; they are non-traditional and are activities that are initiated as needed and operate for a specified period. Projects are distinct from other organization processes, as a rule a process refers to on-going day to day activities which an organization engages in while producing goods and services. These processes use existing systems, properties and capabilities in a continuous fairly repetitive manner. Projects on the other hand take place outside the normal process-oriented world of the firm. For the majority of organizations project management activities remain unique and separate from the manner in which more routine process-driven work is performed (Burke 2008).
Secondary schools in Kenya play a key role in providing education to the youth. Both public and private schools contribute greatly to education in Kenya though public institutions admit the bulk of these pupils. These institutions are managed by the Board of Governors and at the school level, Principals. The crisis in the management of projects in these institutions (especially public ones) emanates from the principals’ lack of capacity to oversee and account for the utilization of the scarce resources under them (Sessional Paper, 2005). The Ministry of Education realizing the importance of providing sound leadership in these institutions proposed the establishment and adoption of a performance based management system in the appointment and deployment of educational managers at all levels (Sessional Paper No.1 2005). Project managers in secondary schools who happen to be the principals of the schools playa very important role in the school and the society at large. In their line of duty, they face so many challenges in the school management due to inadequate training in management among other challenges.
Principals of schools are expected to perform their roles as managers of the entire school effectively. As the managers, they are to plan, implement and evaluate the institutions programs as well as projects. One of the major challenges is stalling of projects in school. These projects includes: construction classes or laboratories and other facilities, equipping of the school library, laboratory, and purchase of school bus among others. Many at times these projects stall due to mismanagement of resources as a result of effects from one or more factors. The stallation of these projects, have led to interruptions of the school programs for instance students’ unrest and the teachers’ under performance due to lack of motivation resulting in dismal performance by students in national examinations. Many studies have been undertaken on the effective school management. Principals therefore need to refresh their managerial skills. The government of Kenya as a result of this need started training education managers in 1987. However, school principals attending these workshops felt that the training course was too short to equip them with the necessary managerial skills. According to Ludiaga Report on KESI(1996), It was noted though, that only a small number of principals attended such workshops. Also since these trainings come at a cost, the principals from smaller schools with financial problems could not afford to sponsor them.
Proper management of projects in schools is of paramount importance. This is because of the rapid changes in the current dynamic society which has resulted in the demands of the teachers as well as the students and other stakeholders have changed. In the management of the school funds, the project manager should be trained on how to handle school finances. The manager should also focus on the initiated projects making sure that they are realized and are achieve. The initiated projects should be realistic and achievable within the specified period of time. Most importantly is the prioritization of projects in order of their importance and urgency.
The world currently is undergoing rapidly changing in the name of globalization. As a result the operational environment in which organization is no longer stable nor predictable. In the world today organizations that are determined to survive and maintain a sustainable competitive advantage must adapt rapidly to continuous change (Navarro & Gallardo 2003). Secondary schools in Kenya are no exception thus, are to embrace and accept improvement and evolution as a result of the changing need of the job market Studies of school development project in South Africa have revealed that they have not had a significant impact on teaching and learning and subsequent learners’ performance (Christie & Potterson 1998). Chinsmy (2002) commented that one of the main reasons for the relative failure of these projects in South Africa, despite their good intentions and excellent content in many cases, was the implementation of single change programs or lack of integration of many programs initiated in school. It is farther revealed that schools that did make improvements in some aspects and whose learners subsequently improved their performance could not maintain that improvement in subsequent years consistently. The limitation to the initiated projects in these schools tended to be supply push intentions; either focusing on input generally there was no focus on the demand side or accountability of the final results.
A research carried out on factors that contribute to students’ performance in KCSE examination in Kabartonjo Division, Baringo District reveals that most schools (83.3%) had inadequate resources like lack of enough laboratory equipment, lab-room, textbooks, charts, maps, atlas and workshops. The study was carried out in terms of availability of learning facilities in the schools and their effects on K.C.S.E. performance. As a result of the lack of these facilities in school leads to the initiation of projects to construct some of them and to ensure that they are equipped well to facilitate good performance by students in the national examination. The revelation by the study also encouraged the researcher to make a follow up on the progress of the initiated project in secondary schools in the entire district.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Many organizations undertake projects as part of their major activities. In order to be efficient in conducting businesses or rendering services, organizations need to employ management practices that will yield the desired results, (Ahoni 1986). In line with this, organizations need to employ project management techniques to ensure successful completion of projects,(Burke 2008). Project management is a new field that secondary schools in Kenya have not fully embraced to aid successful implementation of projects hence project successful completion has been hard to achieve and if it has then all the aspects of project management are not adhered to, any definition of project success must take into consideration what defines the very nature of the project (Pinto 2007).
Instances of unsuccessful implementation of projects in some of the public schools have resulted in cases of inadequate learning facilities hence poor performance in schools, cases of student unrest among others due to stalling project. As a result of cases of mismanagement of funds some initiated project end up being white elephants for instance unfinished building constructions. A study carried out by Mingaine (2005) on financing public secondary schools projects makes it clear that there is more to improve in project implementation in schools. Despite the development of structures and strategies by the government to meet management needs in public secondary schools, success in most of these institutions has been elusive (Sessional paper 2005). It is on this basis that this study sets out to investigate the factors that influence successful implementation of projects in school.
1.3 Objectives of the study
1.3.1 General objective
The study aims at analysing the factors that influence the successful implementation of projects in Public Secondary Schools in Baringo District.
1.3.2 Specific objectives
- To find out how the availability of funds influences the successful implementation of projects in Public Secondary Schools in Baringo District.
- To examine the effects of managerial skills of the personnel on implementation of the projects in Public Secondary Schools in Baringo District.
- To find out the extent to which planning influences the successful implementation of projects in Public Secondary Schools in Baringo District.
- To determine the extent to which stakeholders participation influences the successful implementation of projects in public secondary school
1.4 Research questions
- What contribution does the availability of funds have on successful implementation of projects in public secondary schools?
- To what extend does managerial skills affect the successful implementation of projects in secondary schools?
- How does planning affect successful implementation of project 111 secondary schools?
- Is stakeholders’ involvement an important factor for successful implementation of projects in secondary schools?
1.5 The significance and limitations of the study
The significance of this study is that it will be used to generate ideas that can be applied to boost successful implementation of projects in secondary schools. It will also serve as additional material in the scope of management of projects in secondary schools and other project in general. The study generally aims at having its findings and recommendations to be used by project managers in schools, educational planners and other interested party in the planning and making appropriate decisions concerning project implementation in secondary schools.
The study also seeks to highlight to educational stakeholders and the general public the state of affairs and especially the state of projects in secondary schools concerning their implementation. The findings of the study may be used to benefit the management of schools in Kenya in establishing strategies and policies relating to implementation of projects with the aim of improving academic performance of students. Furthermore, the recommendations are expected to be of help project managers in their bid to ensure the success of all implemented projects to achieve improved service delivery in various institutions. There will a number of limitations to the study. They include inadequate resources for instance time and funds to enable the researcher to have a larger number of target samples.
1.6 Scope of the study
The study will be confined to school projects as one of the school’s investments in pursuit of exemplary Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) results. The aspects of successful implementation of projects will be described and analysed in relation to several factors constituting the problem. The researcher will only indicate the practice found in the schools that will be under the study. The major projects that the study will be confined to include construction, equipping of the laboratories, libraries, administration block and purchase of school buses. The study restricts itself to initiated school projects and their implementation. Implementations of the projects are looked into in relation to four factors which include financing of projects, planning, stakeholders involvement and management of these projects. There are 42 public secondary schools in Baringo District. For the purpose of this study 21 schools in the above mentioned district will constitute the sample population of the study.
This chapter covers on issues relating to successful implementation of project in public secondary schools. The study is seeks to investigate the factors that influence successful implementation of projects in public secondary schools with reference to Baringo District. The literature review related to the present study is divided into previous studies, implementation of projects, funding of the projects, managerial training and competence, timeframes, planning environmental analysis and stake holders’ support and involvement.
2.2 Previous Studies
2.2.1 Implementation of projects
Implementation of projects in organizations depends on a number of issues, the need for a particular service or products in the organization necessitate the process of acquiring it hence the initiation of projects. To embrace globalization and to step up to stay relevant in the system organizations embark on initiating projects in an attempt to stay abreast with the current changing situations. The success of these projects is fundamental to the society to which the organization operate, therefore the projects should be managed well to see them to successful completion. Management of projects during implementation includes applying both the science and art of planning, organizing, leading and controlling the work of the project to meet the goals and objectives of the organization. Management also entails the process of managing the competing demands and the trade-offs between the desired results of the project in terms of scope, performance and quality with the natural constraints of the project which are; time and the cost.
The accomplishment of important tasks and goals in organization today is being achieved increasingly through the use of projects. Secondary schools in Kenya are not left out in the process of achieving its objectives through the use of projects; this has been necessitated by the schools’ need to keep abreast with the global and technological changes. A new organization has emerged recently to deal with the accelerating growth in the number of multiple, simultaneous ongoing and often interrelated projects in organization. This project oriented organizations often referred to as enterprise project management, (Levine 1998), management by projects, (Boznak 1996), and similar names were created to tie projects closely to the organization’s goals and strategy and to handle the growing number of ongoing projects. Given that the organization has an appropriate mission statement and strategy, projects are usually selected that are consistent with the strategic goals of the organization. The mission statements of the secondary schools in Kenya reflect in the end objectives to be achieved by these institutions. The projects selected therefore selected and implemented so as the objectives of the institution are achieved.
One of the vaguest concepts in project management and implementation is project success. Since each individual or group of people who are involved in the project have different needs and expectation, it is surprising that they interpret project success in their own way of understanding (Leland &Ireland 2004). For those involved with a project, project success is normally thought of as the achievement of some pre-determined project goals, (Lim &Mohamed 1999). Many cases can be cited from literature and anecdotal data of projects that fall short on expectation in one or more of the triple constraint items(time cost and performance) or in terms of client satisfaction, and yet the project team officially announces project success. Success can mean different thing to different people.
Research reveals that time and cost over-runs of projects are very common in India, particularly in the public sector. The Annual Report of the Ministry of Program Implementation for a recent year provides alarming information about 184 central projects monitored by the Ministry of Programme Implementation: 119 projects (65 percent of the total) have suffered time over-runs, which have gone as high as 200 percent -the average delay in commissioning of these projects was about 3 years. 125 projects (about 68 percent of the total) have suffered cost over runs, which have been as high as 75 percent. Most projects which no time and cost oven-un have been indicated have been taken up recently and it is likely that many of them will suffer from time and cost overrun. A similar analysis of state of projects would perhaps reveal an even dismal picture. Due to such time and cost over runs, projects tend to become and economical, resources are not available to support other projects, and economic development is adversely affected. This revelation therefore mandates that planning in terms of cost and time is a pre requisite for successful implementation of projects.
Minimization of time and cost overruns can lead to the prospects of the successful completion of projects. However there are a lot more that can be done to achieve this goal. The aspect of adequate formulation of the project is often deficit; as a result many flaws could arise during the implementation of the project. The process should be carried out with care to avoid deficiencies so that the appraisal and formulation of the project is thorough, adequate and meaningful. Sound organization for projects implementation is critical to its success. The characteristics of such an organization are; that the projects are led by competent leader who is accountable for the project performance, the authority of the project leader is commensurate with their responsibility, adequate attention is paid to the human side of the project and the system as well as methods are clearly defined (Chandra 2003).
The type of project underlines some factors that are important to success. For instance, if a project is urgent, the critical factor in that case is time. The size, value or a project and its uniqueness of activities can be a puzzle for the project manager who is used to planning and coordinating common and simple activities (Evans 2005). The top management support in the principal success factor for many independent research groups which means no project can be finished successfully unless the project manager secures support from the senior or operational management. It is extremely difficult to work in a hostile environment where nobody understands the benefits that the project will deliver to the organization. “Stakeholders management and contract strategies (number of and size of the contract, interface between the different contracts and the management contracts) are separate success factors which are also considered part of organization issues (Torp et al 2004). Once the investment decision is taken it is necessary to do a detailed implementation plan before commencing the actual implementation. Definition of the inter-linkages between the schools mission and the implementation of the projects should be made.
2.2.2. Availability of funds
Once a project has been approved, adequate funds must be available to meet its requirements as per the plan of implementation- it would be highly desirable if funds are provided even before the final approval to initiate advance action. Piecemeal, ad-hoc, and irregular allocation, with undue rigidities, can impair the maneuverability of the project team. It is a common observation that firms which have a comfortable liquidity position are in general, able to implement projects expeditiously and economically. Such firms can initiate advance actions vigorously, negotiate with suppliers and contractors aggressively, organize input supplies quickly, take advantage of opportunities to effect economies, support suppliers in resolving their problems so that they can in turn rebound to successful completion of projects and sustain the morale of project-related personnel at a high level.
Finance is considered a significant element in the implementation of projects in any organization yet it is evident that it’s one of the major hindrances facing the same. Education is recognized as a central element in development, it is widely accepted that without education the process of development will definitely be slow. It is for this reason that in most of the countries of the world education is finances by public budgets. At secondary school level, parents are required to pay a specific amount of money called development funds. Leaders on the other hand arrange for systematic collection of donations from other quarters (Mingaine 2005). This study intends to find out if the finances are availed in time to aid the completion of projects being implemented in schools.
There is a disparity though of the funds available in different secondary schools in Kenya. Other regions, particularly those that are economically advantaged have an upper hand in terms of the amount collected. The economically richer districts are able to put up classrooms, workshops, and laboratories (Eshiwani 1993). However a study in Nyeri carried out by Gathanji(1990) revealed that most public schools suffered from serious shortages of learning/teaching materials such as text books, science materials and special room among others. Also Wanjau (2000) found out that 90% of public schools in Nairobi province lacked adequate physical facilities. The study also found out that 7% of school structures stood unfinished and 3% were old and in need of repair. Information as to whether this was the case in Baringo District secondary schools was missing hence necessitated this research.
Schools implement projects depending on the availability of funds and how these funds are budgeted to see the projects to completion. Public schools rely mainly on the government for financial assistance. However, this has become hard unless local politicians are involved; schools hold harambees to source funds, parents are also the major financiers of school projects. Successful implementation of projects is enhanced by setting specific and realistic objectives. (Gatemi 2002).This helps to avoid cases of projects being abandoned and misdirecting of initial solicited funds this is because finances are usually hard to come by. Proper budgeting is needed in the course of implementing projects in school (Kimani 1998). One of the indicators of successfully implementing project is whether a project is completed within the drawn budget, this study therefore seeks to confirm whether the drawn budgets for particular projects are adhered to by the project manager and their finance counterparts in schools.
The introduction of 8-4-4 education system in Kenya meant that schools needed physical facilities and learning material for workshops. This meant the involvement of parents in developing of these facilities. This involvement was further emphasized in 1992 with the introduction of user charges also known as cost sharing of al services partly or fully provided by the government. Accordingly school stakeholders have been involves in the general management of the schools thorough committees and parents teachers association. It has been the responsibility of the school management committees which includes the Board of Governors (BOG) and the Parents Teaches Association (PTA) to oversee the overall wellbeing of the school. The guidelines followed in fulfilling this responsibility regarding the 1968 Education Act revised in 1980 and the 1978 presidential directive on the establishment of Parents Teaches Association (PTA).
In a study carried out on the cost of education in the United Kingdom it is stated that every teacher, councillor parent had to be aware that the grave inadequacies of educational provision in the past and present could be describes in large part to III inadequate expenditure, (Vassey 1958). It is therefore vital that funds were availed to enable schools run smoothly. Education contributes to the growth of national income by providing skills and productive capacities of the labour. A good education system is the pillar of the economy of any country. This study therefore intends to inform the general public on the importance of providing adequate finance for project initiated in schools.
2.2.3 Managerial Skills and Training
The great expectation of success of projects initiated and implemented in school has necessitated the appointing of a project manager and a project team. The primary responsibility of the project manager is to ensure that all the work is completed on time, within budget and scope and at the correct performance level. Management of projects refers to ‘getting work done by other people’ (Drucker 1973). Project management is mostly dealing with people, it is absolutely essential that managers exercise leadership as well as management skills. Leadership is the art of getting others to want to do something that you believe should be done,(Packard 1962). Leaders get people to want to do things.
Management is the utilization of physical and human resources through cooperation efforts in order to realize the established aims (Ngaroga 2003). It is accomplished by performing the planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. Management in education broadly means the running of institutions and includes school finance and business, the school plant and the guidance of teachers and organizing pupils and other personnel services (Magiri 2005). Principals in secondary school are the overall managers of all schools activities and endeavours. They are in charge of executing the developed educational objectives and in charge of the resources used to achieve the predetermined educational causes. This study is to look into how knowledgeable the principals for them to execute their duties effectively and efficiently.
Ngaroga (2003) highlights further the practical work of educational managers. He says that in ideal situations, a manager is expected to set objectives and formulate plans for achieving them, identify the activities to be performed and define tasks to be done, group the tasks into jobs and staff the jobs with people, initiate activities and supply incentives to stimulate work productivity and set up controls to measure the objectives. It is not possible for managers for managers to deal with many things at the same time and, since all managerial functions are of equal importance, neglecting anyone function would lead to ineffective performance (Smeltzer1989). The gap created by this finding includes how a manager can balance all the functions in his docket. This research therefore seeks to whether equipping the educational managers with managerial skills through training will enable them balance well their duties.
It is necessary that the appointed project manager undergoes training in management especially in project management. Training is mandatory for the effective management of projects initiated in schools. Training is a systematic process by which one learns skills, knowledge, abilities or attitudes to achieve organizational as well as individual goal effectively (Magiri 2005). The importance of training today is the rapid rate of change of technological, social and economic changes. These changes have led to situations where it is necessary for people to acquire skills and become more effective in a shorter time of period. (Sagimo 2002) Lack of managerial skills in the implementation of projects could lead to failure to achieve the set objectives of the project therefore creating conflict among participants. Issues related to lack of managerial skills include hastily made decisions making before thorough analysis is made, inappropriate procedures that might not be approved by the majority of project members, lack of coordination and control over the events and activities of the projects.
Research by Koech (1999) recommends the caliber of persons charged with the management and administration of education is such that their qualifications match up to their duty and responsibilities. The report of the task force on student discipline and unrest in schools (Wangai 2001) and the master plan of education training (1997-2010) all cite lack of quality managements among the principals and the members of the Board of Governors.
Planning is a vital aspect of management which serves a number of important functions that include providing a basis for organizing the work on the project and allocating responsibilities, it acts as a means of communication involved in the project. Planning induces people to focus ahead, instils a sense of urgency and time consciousness. Comprehensive project plan covers activities relating to the project spelling out every detail, proper schedule and sequence of activities. Project objectives and policies must be well defined focusing on questions like; who does what and when. Well defined objectives and policies serve as the framework for decisions to be made by the project manager. Throughout the life of the project, project manager has to seek compromise between the conflicting goal of technical performance, costs standard and time target. A clear articulation of the priorities of management will enable the project manager to take expeditious actions, (Chandra 2003).
One factor that stands out as a key determinant of success of project in all organizations is effective planning. Planning promotes strategic thought based upon data gathered about the institution. It also promotes action and improved decision making, in addition planning improves organizational responsiveness and performance (Bryson 1995).
Planning helps organization to clarify future direction, establish priorities, diversify its products or services and deal effectively with rapidly changing circumstances (Schraeder, 2002). In the 21st century the world is undergoing rapid changes in all fields, the operational environment in which many organizations operate can no longer be predicted. Schools employ planning to be at pace with the changing demands of the many stakeholders including students and parents. Planning process begins with the identification of the organization’s mission and vision based on customer requirement.
The rationale for planning as an approach of management include effective allocation of resources and providing managers with a much needed rationale for evaluating competing budget, request for investing capital. Planning also identifies threats, opportunities and weaknesses through enhancing management alertness to the winds of change, new opportunities and threats to development. It forces organizations to clarify their mission and look to the future, providing better guidance to the entire organization on the crucial point of just what it is they are trying to do and achieve (Swarbrook 2001).
Secondary schools need to plan so as to create a proactive management and counter any tendencies for decision to ensure that methods of evaluating performance are developed. It also helps to achieve unity of the numerous strategies, related decisions by managers across the organization by allocating responsibilities to members of staff. Planning is an interactive process which allows all educational stakeholders to work together. It is also a way of anticipating and accommodating trends that might affect an institution as well as future institutional needs to make decisions about the future before the future forces decisions or renders any decisions irrelevant. School managers are left with no option but to plan, which is also mandated by government boards. Successful planning efforts contribute to successful implementation of important projects in schools.
The fundamentals purpose of planning in regard to school projects is to enable the school to achieve and maintain the highest possible level of effectiveness in meeting the educational needs of its stakeholders in a culture that is characterized by change. There is a widely accepted concept among educationalists that planning is a powerful means of promoting school effectiveness. This is so because it ensures that the school community develops a clear vision of what the school is about and where it’s going, a shared sense of purpose, a common set of goal and a consensus in the means of attaining them (Wachira 2010).It constitutes the school as a learning organization.
Schools engages in development planning which is a continuous process and a mechanism for systematic self-evaluation that enables schools to review its progress, identify its priorities and prepare plans for further improvement. School development planning promotes partnership in schools by engaging major parties in the school community; the principal, teachers, parents and Board of Governors (B.O.G) in a collaborative dialogue focused on identifying and responding to educational needs. Participation in this process fosters stakeholders’ commitment to and ownership of decisions concerning project initiated and implemented in school. Effective deployment of resources heavily relies on planning. Planning enables the school to specify resources required and to target available resource towards priority needs. Management of change is enhanced though planning since it accommodates change in terms of scope and pace.
For projects to be executed successfully there should be provision for possible changes. Change is inevitable and is usually necessitated by the rapid dynamism and new challenges. In Kenya it is a ministerial requirement that all schools formulate development plans with a time frame of 3 to 5 years and draw action plan for each year. According to a research carried out in Kiambu District, the District Educational Officers alluded that it had been established that some schools rarely develop plans for their development projects; they initiate projects without the consent of the District Education Board. This has led to some schools being characterized with inverted priorities, incomplete and dilapidated structures. Ngunju (2009) asserts that due to lack of realistic development plans, school administrators are being implicated with misappropriation of funds since budgets are never adhered to. In Baringo District some schools have continuously registered low academic performance as a result of poor planning in the implementation of projects due to a number of unfinished constructions as well as poorly equipped facilities.
188.8.131.52 Strategic planning in schools
Strategic planning is a disciplined effort to produce fundamental decisions and actions that shape and guide what an organization is, what it does and why it does it, (Bryson 1995). A strategic plan can be defined simply as a road map to lead an organization from where it is now to where it would like to be in five to ten years. Strategic planning includes setting objectives and creating strategies to attain the set objectives. A strategy refers to a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal as differentiated from tactics or immediate actions with resources at hand. Strategic planning assists organizations to establish priorities and to offer better services to stakeholders. Strategic plans must be flexible and practical and yet serve as a guide to implementing programs, evaluating how program are doing and making adjustments where necessary. Strategic planning is premised on the dual notion of crafting a vision and setting goal to guide its implementation as well as updating it as may be necessary as dictated by both internal and external forces of the organization. Strategic planning should be perceived as a set of fundamental decisions and actions that are carefully conceived on a broad scale with a view to guide and organisation’s day to day operations with a focus on the future (Brudford 2000)
Brown et al (1989) defines strategic planning as a process that is designed to move an educational organization through the steps of understanding changes in the external environment assessing the international strengths and weaknesses of the organization, developing a vision of the desired future of the organization and some ways to achieve that mission, developing specific plans to get the organization where it wants to be. Implementation of these plans is monitored so that during the process necessary changes and modification can be made.
Strategic planning encourages a positive response to change and is therefore a highly effective management tool to help organizations cope with the changing environmental conditions without compromising the ideals for which it was created. Essentially the most defining characteristics of a strategic plan is that it gives direction; facilitates prioritization and in a real sense, provides for wise and prudent utilization of resources by limiting them to the key areas where they should be expended. A well-conceived strategic plan provides a bridge between the present and the preferred future by setting out broad intentions to be pursued and ultimately achieved over a defined period of time. Strategic planning is the formal consideration of organizations future cause. All strategic deals with at least one of the three key questions; what do we do? For whom do we do it? And how do we excel? (Cole 2004). In many organizations strategic plan is viewed as process of determining where the organization is going over the next year or more typically 3 to 5 years. In order to determine where it is going the organization needs to know exactly where it stands, then determine where it wants to go and how it will get there resulting in coming up with a strategic plan. The projects to be implemented in schools should therefore be captured in the schools’ strategic plan.
Few secondary schools in Baringo District have embraced strategic plan in their system. The fact that most schools operate without a strategic plan is an indication that there is lack of commitment to quality management. Lack of quality planning may jeopardize successful implementation of projects in schools hence affecting provision of quality education services which may in turn lead to low student academic achievement. Planning in Kenya secondary schools have been conceptualized by Education Master Plan 1997-2010 in terms of human resource, curriculum and financial resources, (Republic of Kenya 1998). The Plan states that planning enhances quality management in schools.
2.2.4 Stakeholders‘ Involvement
The world has become increasingly complex, economically, technologically and socially, as have our schools, (Randal 1997). He adds that in order to respond to these rapidly changing times, new ways of viewing organization power and productivity need to be developed, redefined and broadened in conception so that more people are involved, touched and energized by the process. The idea of effective participation in decision making in schools is supported by Okumbe (1998) who affirms that group of participatory decision making process is recommended for a number of reasons. He states that in groups, a lot of knowledge and facts can be gathered very easily since groups have a broader perspective and can collectively consider more alternative solutions.
Gathachi (1986) and Koech recommends for devolution of power and authority to the district and school levels to enhance the effectiveness of the school management. This is in line with the government educational policies which mandated the formation of school committees, P.T.A and the Board of Governors (Ominde Report 1964-165). The members of these committees and the Board of Governors must be appointed among persons who are committed, competent and experiences, as this would enhance the management and development of educational institutions (Mumo 2004)
In a school set up the stakeholders are to be specified; who they are and what their roles are. There are a number of roles stakeholders can play to enhance the implementation of projects in school. Parents are critical stakeholders in schools and so are teachers, others include school committee and local community. Their potential should be recognized and utilized to the maximum. The information could be harnessed from them through joint meeting (Magiri 2005). The information then used to formulate guidelines on what projects are needed in the school, financing of these projects and how to implement them.
These guidelines should then be spelled out to all stakeholders and since the stakeholders were involved they will be willing to support them hence raising the chances of the projects being implemented successfully, (Njungu 2010). Stakeholders’ involvement is mandatory in the course of implementing projects organization. This research work seeks to establish the level of involvement of the various stake holders in decision making in schools.
In secondary schools in Kenya, stakeholder involvement is a process that draws the whole school community together in shaping the schools future it is paramount that parents are involved during the implementation of projects. Their representation in the B.O.G and P.T.A they can be readily consulted in the clarification of the school mission, vision and aims, the review of the school’s current reality, establishment of priorities and development of policies. All parents should be kept informed of the outcomes of the planning process of the projects, (Jackson 2005). Student involvement through dialogue to ascertain their views on aspects of the school, students’ representative can be invited to participate in the gathering and disseminating of information about the concerned section of the school project, (Wachira 2009). Other stake holders are the Ministry of Education and the local community. The core function of the ministry of education includes strategic planning and policy formulation for the system and also the determination of national curricula and allocation of resources. It plays an important role in the establishing the context within which individual schools development planning takes place in terms of national aims, priorities, curriculum development and availability of resources for implementation.
In South Africa, shared decisions making in school is no longer an option. The framework of shared decision making is embedded in South Africa Act (Act 84 of 1996). This Act states that parents, teachers and learners should be given an opportunity to participate in decision making on educational matters. Despite this, there is general dissatisfaction on how decisions are made in South African school. Many secondary schools in South Africa still adhere to pre-democratic formal lines of authority. Teachers among other stakeholders are dissatisfied on how decisions are made at school level (Nkosana 2003). Concerns raised by respondents were a clear indication that much needs to be done especially on the involvement of stakeholders throughout the project lifecycle, this research aims at filling the identified gap.
2.3 Critical Review of Major Issues
Parents who are the major stakeholders have high expectations from their children in secondary schools. This is because they invest much of their money and time in them therefore the concern they have about their children’s performance is justified. In the developing countries education consumes the largest portion of the government expenditure, it occupies the times and activities of the greatest number of adults and children and carries the greatest burden of development aspirations (Tondaro 1982).
Concern over the incompletion of projects in schools has been noted in many Kenyan public schools. Kamau (2009) pointed out that principals are the most influential resources in school but their effectiveness in the management of projects in the recent times is wanting, taking into the account poor performances in both KCPE and KCSE. Amid efforts to establish the cause of stalling of projects, their effectiveness has come under scrutiny. Mwiti (2007) notes emphatically that a head teacher should involve all the stakeholders in decision making to motivate them towards better performance.
2.4 Summary of the Missing Gap
Researches carried out indicate that successful implementation of projects III any organization depends on quite a number of factors. Adequate facilities III any organization or institution schools facilitate improve service delivery at all levels. Studies carried out on the availability of resources in schools have largely been based on individual factors and not project management as a whole to aid successful completion of projects. They include a case study of Kiambu East District which was a study in terms of effective implementation of school development plans in public secondary schools, (Ngunju 2010) and a study on the financing of public secondary schools development projects, a case study of Meru North District (Mingaine 2005). These studies partially cover issues concerning projects in schools did not address the whole issue of implementation of projects in schools.
These researchers do not also touch on the adoption of project management application in school which is an emerging issue which should be embraced by managers of the school who are the principals of the schools. In the past several decades there has been rapid growth in the use of project management as a means by which organizations achieve their objectives. Most projects were external to the organization but the growth in the use of projects lately has primarily been in the area of projects internal to organizations so as to improve the services provided to customers, (Meredith et al 2010). This study therefore fills the gap of recommending the adoption of project management aspect in schools. The existing gap therefore exists regarding the investigation of factors that influence the successful implementation of projects in schools. In Kenya the Ministry of Education takes the huge portion of the country’s budget making secondary schools ideal for study since it’s a government concern whose results can be applied in other ministries and sectors.
2.5 Conceptual framework
The conceptualization of this study in based on the assumption that successful implementation of projects in secondary school would lead to improved performance of students and better delivery of services by the teachers. The independent variables include; adequate financing of the projects, planning, stakeholder involvement and presence of managerial skill among managers of these projects. Successful implementation of projects is the dependent variable which may not necessarily be brought about by the independent variables mentioned above. There are other contributing factors adequate formulation, sound project organization, advance action, better contract management effective monitoring among others. All these variables may hinder successful implementation of projects.
2.5 The Conceptual Framework
This chapter covers the research design and the methodology used in gathering information for the purpose of this study. The chapter discusses the study design, target population, sampling techniques, design, size and procedure, data collection instruments and procedure for data analysis.
3.2 Research Design
Research design involves the researcher observing, describing, comparing and analysing the characteristics, attributes, themes and the underlying dimensions of particular units, (Mugenda 1999). The research design to be used in this study is a descriptive and explanatory research design since these tools allow the use of the gathered primary and secondary data. Descriptive studies allow fact-finding as well as result information with important principles of knowledge and solution. The design was found appropriate since it allowed the use of research instruments like questionnaires. The study will therefore enable the researcher to describe the current situation as pertains to the factor influencing successful implementation of projects in public secondary schools.
3.3 Target population
Population can be defined as ‘any group of people, or observation, or test in which we happen to be interested’ (Bell 1997). Baringo district has a total of 42 public secondary schools; however for the purpose of this study 21 schools will be selected. A researcher selects a sample due to various limitations that may not allow researching the whole population,(Gay 1992). The principals of all these schools comprise the target population and this is because they are the ones who manage the schools’ activities. Baringo district will be chosen because it is convenient and accessible to the researcher.
3.4 Sampling Design
Simple random sampling will be used in selecting the schools for study. Simple random sampling is the best form of sampling as it allows all members of a population to have an equal and unbiased chance of appearing in the sample, (Gay 1992). For the case of this study the list of the schools in the district were obtained from the District Education Officer.
3.4.1 Rationale for sample selection
All the head teachers of the selected schools will be included in the study because they are the chief controllers of school’s affairs; their duties include ensuring that the school has adequate facilities for effective learning and teaching. The principal is also aware of the usage of these facilities being implemented in school hence are in the best position to explain the quality and when the resources and facilities are needed. The target sample comprises 21 out of the 42 schools in the district. This constitutes 50% of the total population hence the selection for representative results. All the schools will be assigned random numbers. Then any 21 will be picked from the 42, the schools matching the selected numbers will therefore comprise the sample.
3.5 Data collection instruments
Primary and secondary data will be used in the study. Primary data will be acquired by the researcher using questionnaires which will be self-administered to the respondents. In the use of a questionnaire, the subject responds to the questions. The advantage of this instrument (questionnaire) is that they can be issued to large numbers of people at the same time (Fraenkel and Wallen 2000). Close ended questions will be used since they are easy to use, analyze and capture data. These questions also enhance consistency of response across the respondents. Secondary data will be collected through literature review and from the Ministry of Education publications.
Questionnaires are widely used in educational research to information about the current condition and practices and to make inquiries concerning attitudes and opinions quickly in a precise form (Lovell & Lawso 1971). Questionnaires provide a cheap means of collecting data from a large number of people, (PeiI, 1995). Questionnaires will be used for the purpose of this study to obtain primary data from the target sample. The questionnaires will be administered to the head teachers to seek information on the general information concerning implementation of projects in the school; the physical facilities, development projects initiated in school, the extent to which they are accomplished, problems encountered and possible solutions when implementing these projects. The questionnaires will be served to the head teachers by the researcher.
3.6 Validity and Reliability of the Research Instrument
Validity is an indication of accuracy in terms of the extent to which a research conclusion correspond with reality (McBurney, 2010), it is the degree by which the sample of test items represent the content that the test is designed to measure (Bell 1987). The validity of the research instruments will be established by seeking opinions of experts in the field of study especially my supervisors who facilitated the necessary vision and modification of the instrument thereby enhancing validity. In addition, the validity of the instrument will be enhanced through pilot testing on a small group of respondents (two head teachers) who will be from schools not included in the final study. Validity of the research instrument will simply imply that the conclusion the researcher derives is correct or true.
Reliability of a research instrument enhances its ability to measure consistently what is intended. The reliability of the instrument will be enhanced through the pilot testing on a small group of respondents. The pilot results will help the researcher to correct inconsistencies arising from the instrument, which will in the end ensure that they measured what was intended.
3.7 Data analysis
This involves interpreting information gathered from the respondents once questionnaires have been received from them. At the end of the data collection process questionnaires will thoroughly be checked for completeness. Only duly filled instruments by the respondents will be used. The researcher will use both qualitative and quantitative data analysis technique to analyze the collected data. The use of descriptive statistics comprising of frequency tables, graphs and charts. Data will be analyzed with the help of statistical package for social science to come up with frequency tables and percentages. It has been observed that percentages are easy to calculate and understand, (Peil 1995). It has also been held as the most widely used and understood standard proportion, (Kahn et al 1989). For these reasons the data will be presented in percentages. Findings will then be compiled into a report and a conclusion drawn.
3.8 Expected Output
The qualitative and quantitative information to be collected which captures the actual process of project implementation of project in school will be used to provide insight onto the aspects to be considered in order to achieve successful completion of initiated projects in schools as well as in any other institution.
DATA ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION
This chapter presents the data analysis, presentation and the interpretation of the findings of the research. It provides the frequencies and the corresponding percentages and an analysis of how these findings relate to the study. The data collected is arranged into categories and interpreted on the basis of each research question.
4.1 Response Rate
A total of 21 respondents were identified for the research sample. This represented about 21% of the whole population of 42 principals. The respondents were sampled from all the public schools in the district. Out of the 21 questionnaires sent, a total of 20 were returned 19 were duly filled which is 90% of the total respondents. This is significant enough to provide reliable and valid finding for this study.
4.2 Respondents classification by Gender
Table 4.2.1 Gender of the Respondent
The respondents were asked indicate their gender and the results were as indicated in table 4.2.1 and figure 4.2.1 below
Figure 4.2.1 Gender of the Respondent
The respondents of the research when classified by gender showed that there were more male principal than female principals with 15 males responding and 4 ladies. It indicated that 78.9% of the respondents were men and 21.1 0% were ladies as presented in figure 4.2.1 below.
4.3 Respondents Level of Education
Table 4.3.1 Level of education
Figure 4.3.1 Level of education
Respondents were asked to indicate the number of years they have been holding the post of principal in their current working station. The findings indicated that there has been stability in terms of retention in their position with 26.4% having worked for between 0-5 years, 47.38% have worked for between 6-10 years and another 26.4% have worked in the same station for over 10 years.
4.4 Project Financing
The respondents were asked who the major financiers of the project being implemented are and the responses were as follows; a large percentage of 79% indicated that the parents are the ones who finance through the payment of development fund, 16% indicated that the government chip in and 5% indicated that they have a donor.
Figure 4.4.1 Major Financiers of Projects
4.5 Availability of funds in good time
Respondents were asked to indicate whether the funds are usually availed in promptly as needed or availed in good time. The responses were as presented in table 4.6.1 and figure 4.6.1 below
Table 4.5.1 Availability of funds in good time
Figure 4.5.1 Availability of funds in good time
Figure 4.6 above indicates that in most cases the funds are availed much later than it is needed, 12 principals which represent a percentage of 63% indicate that the funds are not availed promptly by the financier and only 7 principals representing 37% indicate that the fund are availed in good time.
4.6 Drawing of a budget for projects being implemented
The respondents were asked to indicate whether a budget was drawn in case a project was to be implemented, 100% of the respondents indicated that a budget was mandatory for any project to be approved for implementation
Table 4.6.1 Drawing of a budget for projects being implemented
4.7 Extent to which the budget is adhered to
Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which the drawn budget is adhered to and the responses were as presented in table 4.8.1 and figure 4.8.2 below.
Table 4.7.1 The extent to which the budget is adhered to
Figure 4.7.1 The extent to which the budget is adhered to
The response on the extent to which the budget was adhered to indicated that 5 principals representing 26.31 % said that the budget was fully adhered to, 11 representing 57.89% indicated that the budget was partially adhered to and 3 respondents that is 15.78% indicated that the budget was drawn but ignored completely.
The respondents were asked concerning planning during the process of implementing project, specifically those responsible for the planning process. The response was as presented in below.
Table 4.8.1 Who are responsible of planning for the implementation of projects
Figure 4.8.1 Who are responsible of planning for the implementation of projects
Responses were that 10 respondents said that the BOG/PT A are responsible for the planning process, while 6 respondents cited that the school principals are responsible and 3 indicated others including Heads of Department being responsible.
4.9 Formal planning meetings held as projects are in progress
When the respondents were asked to indicate whether formal planning meeting were held, the results were as shown in table 4.10.1 and figure 4.10.1 below.
Table 4.9.1 Formal planning meetings held as projects are in progress
Figure 4.9.1 Formal planning meetings held as projects are in progress
Responses indicated that 15 respondents representing 78.95% said that formal meetings were held concerning planning of the project being implemented while only 4 respondents which was 21.05% indicated that no formal meeting took place.
4.10 Whether project plan are drawn
Respondents were asked to indicate whether plan for individual projects are drawn and the responses were as presented below.
Table 4.10.1 Whether project plan are drawn
Figure 4.10.1 Whether project plan are drawn
The responses on whether a plan was drawn for the project indicates that 74% of the respondent said yes and 26 indicated that no project plan was drawn at all.
4.11 Indication on whether the timelines set in the project plan are met
In cases where the project plan is drawn, there are timelines set for the completion of individual project activities. Respondents were asked to indicate whether the time lines were set or not and the responses are as follows.
Table 4.11.1 Whether the timelines set in the project plan are met
Figure 4.11.1 Whether the timelines set in the project plan are met
When asked to indicate whether the time lines set were met, 68.42% which were respondents said yes while 6, a percentage of 31.57% said no.
4.12 Managerial skills and training
Respondents were asked about their management skill and any other training in management especially of projects. Their responses were as indicated below.
4.12.1 Management of projects
When asked on who manages project being implemented in schools, the respondents’ responses were as indicated in the table 4.13.1 and figure 4.13.1 below.
Table 4.12.1 Management of projects
|Head of Department||5||26.31|
Figure 4.12.1 Management of projects
The responses on who managers initiated projects in schools showed that principal are the ones who heads the implementation of these projects. 16 respondents representing 63.14% indicate that principals manages principals, 5 respondents representing 26.31% indicated that it’s the heads of department who manages the projects while 2 respondents representing 10% indicate others who include a manager employed externally to exclusively manage the project in progress. However external managers are hired depending on the size and the kind of project for instance massive construction within the school.
4.13 Training in Project Management
Respondent were asked if they have been trained in project management and the responses are as in table 4.14.1 and figure 4.14.1 below
Table 4.13.1 Training in Project Management
Figure 4.13.1 Training in Project Management
Majority of the respondents constituting of 78.94% indicate that they have not received any training in project management; however they indicated that they have undergone training in management in general while 21.05% indicated that they have received training in project management.
4.14 Stakeholders’ involvement
Respondents were asked whether other stakeholders of the school were being involved while implementing projects. When asked whether the members of the BOG/PTA are involved in the implementation of projects in schools, the responses were as follows.
Table 4.14.1 Whether the members of the BOG/PTA are involved
Figure 4.14.1 Whether the members of the BOG/PTA are involved
Responses on whether stakeholders were involved, 84% of the respondents indicated that they were involved in specific activities for instance to review the progress of the projects and at times to help in raising funds. On the other hand 16% indicated that the stakeholders were not involved at all.
4.15 Effectiveness of stakeholders’ participation on implementation of projects.
When asked on the effectiveness of stakeholders’ participation, the responses were as presented in table 4.16.1 and figure 4.16.1 below.
Table 4.15.1 Effectiveness of stakeholders’ participation on implementation of projects
Figure 4.15.1 Extent of effectiveness of the stakeholders’‘ participation
Out of the total 19 respondents, 9 of them indicated that stakeholder participation is effective, 5 of them indicated that is very effective, 2 indicated that it is ineffective and only 2 indicated that it is very ineffective.
4.16 Causes of ineffective stakeholder participation
Respondents who stated that stakeholder participation was ineffective were asked to give reasons for it and it was as presented in table 4.17.1 below.
Table 4.16.1 Causes of ineffective stakeholder participation
|Failure to involve them||1|
|School org. set up||1|
4.17 Stages of the project at which stakeholders are involved
Respondents were asked about the particular stages at which stakeholders were involved and their responses were as presented below.
Table 4.17.1 Stages of the project at which stakeholders are involved
|Raising of funds||3||15.78|
|All through completion||14||73.68|
Figure 4.17.1 Stages of the project stakeholders
The response to the question on what stages of the project stakeholders are involves indicated that 2 respondents representing 10.52% said that stakeholders were only involved at the initial stage, 3 representing 15.78% said that they were involved while raising funds and majority, 14 respondents representing 73.68% said that stakeholders were involved for as long as the project lasted.
4.18 Implementation of projects
Respondents were asked whether they had implemented any project during their service at their current station. The projects implemented however varied from construction, purchase of school buses, equipping of libraries, laboratories and workshops.
Table 4.18.1 Implementation of projects
When asked whether they had implemented any project all the 19 respondents said yes. The response indicated that all the principals had implemented at least one project.
4.19 Indication of the extent to which implemented projects were successful
The respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which the projects executed were successful and the responses were as presented in the table and figure below.
Table 4.19.1 Extent to which implemented projects were successful
On the extent of success of projects implemented by the respondents, 47% indicated that the projects were very successful, 32% indicated that they were partially successful and 21 % indicated that they were not successful.
Table 4.20.1 Major challenges faced during implementation of projects
|Failure to involve key stakeholder||3||15.78|
|Lack of adequate planning||14||84.21|
|Inadequate training on project management||16||73.68|
|Failure to do an environmental scan||3||15.78|
When asked to state the major challenges that they face during the implementation of projects, the response was as follows; 18(94.73% ) respondents cited inadequate funds and that the little available is not availed in good time, 3(15.78%) respondents cited failure to involve the stake holders, 14 (73.68%) respondents cited inadequate planning, 16(84.21 %) respondents cited lack of training in project management, 5(26.31 %) respondents cited external interference while 3 (15.78%) cited failure to do an environmental scan which includes the weather.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter contains a summary of the major findings on the factors affecting successful implementation of project on public secondary school in Baringo District. It further covers the conclusions, recommendations and areas for further research.
5.1 Summary of the major findings
The study revealed that majority of the projects implemented in public school are unsuccessful. The case is as a result of many factors which include delayed funding of the projects and non-adherence to the budgets drawn, lack of planning, the managers’ lack of training in project management and failure to involve the stakeholder all through the project’s life cycle. Project implementation in secondary schools fails to acknowledge all these factors.
The research employed the use of questionnaires to collect data for the purpose of achieving the objective of the study. The general objective was to investigate factors influencing successful implementation of projects in public secondary schools in Baringo district. Secondary schools in Kenya have the intention of providing quality education to all students they admit. This can only be possible when the schools have enough resources to facilitate effective and effective teaching and learning process.
The specific objectives of the study included; how the availability of funds, managerial skills of the personnel, planning and stakeholder’s participation influences the successful implementation of projects in public secondary schools.
The first objective of the research was to find out how the availability of funds influences the successful implementation of projects in Public Secondary Schools. The findings indicated that most projects are financed by parents through payment of project/development fund and at times the government finances some. The findings however indicated that these funds are not availed promptly when needed, 63.16% of the respondents indicated that the funds are delayed. In the case where parents are funding the projects, the funds are not availed in time in that they do not pay the fee they are charged to finance the projects in time. On the other hand where the government is funding the project there are many instances when there is a delay in releasing the fund for the project promptly.
The second objective was to examine the effects of managerial skills of the personnel on implementation of the projects in public schools, especially training in project management. The findings indicate that most respondents who were principals of public secondary school have not received any training in projects management, 78.94% admitted to not having any training in project management. However the same finding indicate that most of them have received training in general management hence apply the knowledge to manage the projects implemented in their work station.
The third specific objective was to find out the extent to which planning influences the successful implementation of projects in Public Secondary Schools. Most respondents indicated that planning meeting were held where project plans was drawn with timelines set. 68.43% of the respondents indicated that timelines were not met; this was caused majorly by delay in availing the funds when need as well as managers not adhering to the drawn budget of the project being implemented. It also resulted in instances of unsuccessfully implemented projects since it means at times changing the scope of the project due to inadequacy of fund in time.
The last objective was to determine the extent to which stakeholders’ participation influences the successful implementation of projects in public secondary schools. The findings indicated the 84% of the respondents indicated that the stakeholders were the BOG/PT A was involved in they helped the principal sometime in raising funds for the project, foresee the implementation process, sourcing materials and also supervising the project’s progress.
The study showed that principals in public secondary schools strive to ensure that projects under their watch are executed successfully; however there are factors to be considered and balance for any success to be achieved by these project managers. The challenges include lack of knowledge in project management by the project managers, delay in availing the funds to finance the projects, involving stake holders only at the initial stage of implementation and failure to plan adequately for to the project.
On planning and stakeholder involvement it can be concluded that it has an immense contribution on successful implementation of projects in schools since most respondents who indicated that the projects were successful also indicated that planning took place hence the timelines were set. On stakeholder involvement, most respondents (78.95%) indicated that stakeholders were involved and it had positive influence on the implementation since it led to acceptance of the projects as well as stakeholders owning up the decisions made concerning the projects. The respondents’ responses therefore emphasized the importance of stakeholder participation all through the life cycle of the project. Training principals in project managements was a challenge since 78.94% of the respondents have not received any training on the same, they felt that there were no efforts made by the ministry of education to equip the principals with this kind of training.
(i)Availability of funds
The government needs to work on modalities of ensuring that the funds allocated to fund projects in schools are released in time to avoid delays in the completion of projects due to unavailability of funds when needed. On the other hand, if it is the parents funding the projects, the school administration should issue the directive early enough and collect the funds way in advance to avoid cases of projects staling midway due to delay or lack of funds. If funds are delayed it also hampers the process of adhering to the drawn budget leading to instance of misappropriation of funds.
The school administration must take the initiative of planning to determine in advance the route course of the project, it helps the project manager to determine what activity of the project take place and when it should end. Planning also involves the process drawing a project plan which guides the project implementers to determine the definite start and end of project activities. It is a process which creates a good working relation between the project manager and the project teams since they are aware of what should be done at what time.
(iii) Managerial skills and training
The ministry of education and other education stakeholders should initiate programs to allow the principals who are in most cases managers of projects in their schools to be trained in project management. Over time principals with the help of parents and teachers initiate and execute projects in attempt to acquire resources for effective learning hence it is necessary to equip them with the basic knowledge that will alleviate successful completion of the projects.
(iv) Stakeholder involvement
Principals should always strive to involve all the stakeholders especially the parents as well as the teacher in all aspect of planning of the implementation of projects in schools. This would make them own up the responsibilities as well as the decision cropping up as a result of the projects in progress. It will reduce resistance and will enhance taking responsibility. It will also enhance trust and reduce suspicion especially in handling and spending of the projects funds.
5.4 Suggestions for further studies
This study was only limited to the area of study, which was Baringo district, thus there are many other areas that the study that further research could be carried out to provide insight on the process of implementation of projects, challenges facing implementation and the others. They include the areas suggested below:
- A comparative analysis on management of projects and their implementation in Public and private secondary school, this may reveal the actual situations in the differently managed institutions hence learning lessons from one another.
- Effects of unsuccessful implementation of project on students’ performance in public secondary school is a research area which would be beneficial to all stakeholders to strive to ensure successful implementation in school for effective and efficient learning and teaching process.
- A research covering a larger sample of public schools cases of implementation of projects may aid in gathering a wider scope.
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Appendix 1- Questionnaires
Appendix 1.1 Questionnaires for Principals
This questionnaire seeks to find out the factors influencing successful implementation of projects in public secondary schools in Baringo District. The information obtained will be held in confidence and used for the intended purpose only
SECTION I: BACKGROUND INFORMATION
- Gender: Male ( ) Female ( )
- Highest level of education: Secondary ( ) Diploma ( ) Undergraduate ( ) Masters Degree ( )
- How long have you been the principal in your current station? 0-5 years ( ) 6-10 years ( ) Over 10 years ( )
SECTION II: AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS
- Who are the major financiers of projects in schools? Parents ( ) Government( ) Donors ( ) Any other specify ______________
- Do the financier(s) avail the funds promptly or at least in good time? Yes ( ) No ( )
- Is a budget drawn once funds for a particular project have been availed? Yes ( ) No ( )
- If a budget is drawn, to what extent is it adhered to? Completely ( ) partially ( ) ignored completely ( )
4 SECTION II: PLANNING
- Who is responsible with planning of the implementation of projects? BOG/PTA( ) School principal ( ) Any other specify___________
- a) Does the school hold any formal planning meetings with the BOG, PTA members and teachers in case a project is to be implemented? Yes ( ) No ( )
- a) Are project plans drawn for individual projects implemented? Yes ( ) No ( )
- b) Project plans clearly states the timeline by which a project should be completed. Are these timelines met? Yes ( ) No( )
Give reason for your answer_________________________________
SECTION III: MANAGERIAL SKILL AND TRAINING
- Who managers the initiated projects in your school? The principal ( ) Head of Department ( ) Any other (specify) ________________________
- Have they been trained in project management? Yes ( ) No ( )
- To what extent does training in management and specifically project management contribute to successful implementation of projects? Effective ( ) Very effective ( ) ineffective ( ) very effective ( )
SECTION IV: STAKEHOLDERS’ INVOLVEMENT
- Are the PTA and O.G members involved in the implementation of projects in your school? Yes ( ) No ( )
- What role do they play if they are involved? _____________________________
To what extent have they been participating in implementation of projects? Effective ( ) Very effective ( ) Ineffective ( ) Very ineffective ( )
- If they have been ineffective in their participation for school development projects, what could be the reason? Failure of the school to involve them ( ) Shareholder’s indifference ( ) The school’s organizational set up ( )
- At what stage are the stakeholders involved? Initial stage which includes deciding which project to initiate ( ) When raising funds to finance the project ( ) For as long as the project take to completion ( )
SECTION V: PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION
- Have you implemented any project in the school you head in the last 5 years? Yes ( ) No ( )
- If No. 19 above is yes what specific projects? ________________________
- According to you to what extent have these projects been executed successfully? Very successful ( ) Partially successful ( ) Not successful ( )
- What are the major challenges faced in the process of project implementation? Inadequate funds ( ) Lack of adequate planning skills ( ) Failure to involve key stake holders ( ) Inadequate training on project management ( ) External interferences ( ) Failure to carry out environmental analysis ( ) Any other factor (cite) ___________________________________________
Appendix V: List of public secondary schools in Baringo District
- Kabarnet High School
- Kapkawa Boys’
- Kituro High School
- Timboiywo Day Sec. School
- Tenges High School
- Kapchomuso Sec. School
- Marigat Sec. School
- Ruth Kiptui Girls’ Sec
- Kiserian Sec. School
- Riwo Sec. School
- Keturwo Sec. School
- Kapkelelwa Sec. School
- Ng’etmoi Sec. School
- Salabani Sec. School
- Tabagon Girls’ High School
- Oinobmoi Sec. School
- Philemon Chelagat Sec. School
- Chemolingot Sec. School
- Kapropita Girls’ High School
- Ossen Secondary School
- Pemwai Girls’ High School
- Moi Kabartonjo
- Sabor Secondary School
- Aiyebo Secondary School
- Talai Secondary School
- Bartolimo Secondary School
- Kasisit Secondary School
- L. Bogoria Sec. School
- Kapkiamo Sec. School
- Kapluk Sec. School
- Kaptimbor School
- Tanyilel Sec. School
- Mochongoi Day See School
- Kapcherere Sec. School
- Ng’ambo Sec. School
- Loruk Sec. School
- Poi Sec. School
- Tiriondonin Day Sec. School
- Kapsoit Mixed Day Sec
- St. Peter, Kaptorokwo Sec School
- Kewamoi Secondary School
- Kasok Girls’