Building sanitation process

Procedures for the abatement of nuisance

The procedure for the abatement of nuisance in building, is  the same pattern as that of dealing with nuisances (general) provided in the public health laws. The procedure is as follows:

  • Carry out inspection of premises/building within 6am – 6pm i.e. reasonable hour.
  • Detection of nuisances
  • Issuance of abatement notice to nuisance defaulters in the case of structural nuisances and oral notice in the case of non-structural nuisance. But, it oral notice fails, issue abatement notice.
  • Verification of abatement notice served to ensure compliance or non-compliance.
  • Prosecution of offenders for non compliance after expiration of the specified time.
  1. An abatement order: Is an order issued for the abatement of a nuisance within the time specified in the order.
  2. A Prohibition order: Is an order issued to prohibit the reoccurrence of a nuisance.
  3. A Closing order: Is an order issued to prohibit and  close down any  premises from been used for human habitation

What is nuisance?

According to Public Health Law, nuisance is any act or omission of a place or thing which is or maybe injurious to health and dangerous to life and property.  Nuisance is classified into two under the law, viz:

  • Structural nuisance
  • Non structural/statutory nuisance

Structural nuisance

Structural nuisance is derived from the word “structure”. Therefore, structural nuisance are nuisance that arises from the building owner’s default in a premises or failure of the owner to provide certain facilities in such premises and is specified by law to be abated. The public health law provides that in such cases an abatement notice should be served on the owner.

Examples of structural nuisance are;

  1. Absence or defective latrine facilities
  2. Absence, defective or insufficient bathroom accommodation
  3. Unwholesome water supply
  4. Unconcreted or broken floor
  5. Absence or sagging ceiling
  6. Inadequate ventilation
  7. Absence of drainage system
  8. Absence or defective soak-away pit or
  9. Defective or filed up septic tank or latrine accommodation.
  10. Dilapidated walls or defection of any part of the building
  11. Poor/inadequate lightening etc

Abatement notice as regards to the above nuisance as provided by the law should be served on the owner of the premises. They are expected to be given 7 – 30 days for abatement.

Non-structural/statutory nuisance

There are nuisance that may arise from both owner and occupiers of a building. They are generated through one activity or the other, though may not be permanent in nature. They could be dangerous to human health if not quickly abated. Examples of statutory nuisance includes:

  1. Overgrown weeds
  2. Indiscriminate waste disposal
  3. Pollution of sources of water with sewage, refuse, dangerous chemical.
  4. Noise pollution arising from grinding mills/machine offensive odour from offensive trade such as corn mill, animal waste, carpentry etc
  5. Receptacles containing stagnant water.
  6. Any pool, gutter or water course containing waste water
  7. Rearing of animals or birds in living premises
  8. Any hole excavation or quarry in or near any street which is likely to become dangerous to health/public.
  9. Accumulation of loads in the passage and kitchen.
  10. Any premises with rat holes or runs in which the ventilating opening are not protected with grating
  11. Insanitary cow house, pig sty or stable. etc.

Abate notice as regards to statutory nuisance may be served on the owner or occupier or both of them (joinder of  parties) as the case may be. Oral notice of 1 – 2 days are given in this types of nuisance. In a case of non-compliance with oral notice, abatement notice can be issued. Their abatement ranges between 14 days or depending on the severity of such nuisance.

Abatement notice

This is a notice popular called A.N. It is a legal document which is issued by a health officer, if he/she is certified of the existence of nuisance in a particular premises.

It is usually served on the person by whose acts, default or sufferance the nuisance exists requiring him/her to abate the nuisance within the time frame specified in the notice

Features of an abatement notice

Abatement notice contains the following:

  • Reference/serial number
  • Local Government area
  • Name of the nuisance defaulter
  • Address of the premises where nuisance exist.
  • Details of the nuisance detected
  • Details on how to abate the nuisances.
  • Time duration for the nuisance to be detected
  • Date and time of preparing the abatement notice.
  • How the notice will be served
  • Name date and signature of the health officer.
  • Place for the name, signature and date of the witness
  • Time of serving the notice


How to serve an abatement notice

In serving the abatement notice the EHO should do the followings:

  • Deliver the notice to the nuisance author (owner or occupier) or
  • Deliver the notice to some adult members in the premises or
  • Fix the notice at any conspicuous part of the premises, where the author or any adult member of the premises cannot be seen or where they refuse to collect the notice from the officer

Types of building inspection

Building inspection could be carried out in two ways, viz:

  1. Routine/house-to-house inspection: Is the everyday checking of buildings to defect and abate nuisance.
  2. Casual/incidental inspection: Is the inspection carried out upon receiving a complain.

Nuisances likely to be detected and abated during building inspection

  1. Nuisance: Damaged ridge cap of roof, which allow rainwater into the rooms causing dampness on the entire building.

Abatement: Remove existing ridge cap and replace with aluminium type.

  1. Nuisance: Broken doors and windows of building this exposed occupants to adverse effects of weather condition and ingress of mosquitoes and rodents.

Abatement: Remove all broken doors and windows and replace same with new ones.

  1. Nuisance: Bad mortise door lock sets exerting undue fatigue in every attempt to open the doors.

Abatement: You are required to remove and replace same with new ones.

  1. Nuisance: Cracks at the entire walls of building which provide habitat for insects to breed, prejudicial to the health of occupants.

Abatement: You are required chisel and re-patch existing cracks with cement mortar.

  1. Water splashes in the walls of toilet/bathroom given rise to dampness on the walls inimical to the health of users.

Abatement —Provide and fix white ceramic 150 x 150mm wall and floor tiles, in toilets and bathrooms

  1. Nuisance: Damaged electrical cables, switches, \/ sockets, control units, distribution board, circuit- breaker causing darkness, and poor ventilation and security problems, deleterious to the health of the inhabitants.

Abatement — Remove and replace damaged cables, switches, sockets, control units, distribution board, of and circuit breaker with good brands

  1. Nuisance: Damaged kitchen sink, prejudicial to health of the people.

Abatement — Provide and fix the kitchen sink with ceramic brand.

  1. Nuisance: Absence of kitchen cabinet resulting in indiscriminate packing of cooking utensils.

Abatement – You are required to provide and fix standard kitchen cabinet comprised of quality plywood and nailed /plunged to the wall for safe keeping of kitchen utensils, plates and cutleries.

  1. Nuisance: Dilapidated walls of building which can collapse off any time resulting in the loss of lives of occupants.

Abatement — Demolish and reconstruct the dilapidated to fore-stall sudden collapse of the walls.

  1. Nuisance: Damaged Twyford wash hand basin in the toilet.

Abatement — You are required to remove and replace same with good one to hence the personal hygiene of users.

  1. Nuisance: Dirty paint surfaces of walls, doors, frames and steel support pipes of building which is unsightly.

Abatement — Prepare and apply two (2) coats of (saclux) paints on the walls, doors, frames and steel support pipes.

  1. Nuisance: Damaged roof sheets and ceiling boards which are likely to collapse on the inhabitants of the building leading to lost of life and property.

Abatement — Remove and replace the damage roofing sheets, ceiling boards with new ones.

  1. Nuisance: Damaged baths and showers in bathrooms, prejudicial to the health of occupants.

Abatement — Provide and replace damaged baths and showers in bathrooms immediately.

  1. Nuisance: Broken septic/soakage tank, which is discharging sewage into the public drain emitting foul odour and providing breeding ground for mosquitoes.

Abatement — You are required to evacuate the contents and repairs the both the septic tank and soakage pit.

  1. Nuisance: Absence of mosquito nets on the windows and doors of building which favour mosquito infestation in building, prejudicial to health.

Abatement — Provide and fix mosquito nets on windows and doors to avoid mosquito infestation in building.

  1. Nuisance: Broken inspection chamber discharging / faecal matters into the yard space, emitting odours and encouraging fly breeding.

Abatement — Evacuate the contents and repair.

  1. Nuisance: Damaged roof sheets and ceiling boards which are likely to collapse on the inhabitants of the building leading to lost of life and property.

Abatement: Remove and replace the damaged sheets, ceiling boards with new ones.

  1. Nuisance: Damaged louver glasses.

Abatement: Replace with new ones.

  1. Nuisance: Dirty compound, which appears very unsightly and attractive to rodents and flies.

Abatement: Sweep the compound and remove the resultant refuse to an appropriate dumping site.

  1. Nuisance: Absence of latrine accommodation in the premises, a condition prejudicial to the health of occupants.

Abatement: Provide adequate sanitary accommodation of such character that will minimize the danger of transmission of diseases.

  1. Nuisance: Over grown weeds in and around the premises favourable to vermin infestation, a condition deleterious to health of occupants.

Abatement: Cut down the over grown weeds and remove the resultants refuse to an appropriate disposal site.

  1. Nuisance: Floor level below the ground level due to defective construction by taking a wrong level.

Abatement: Correct by filling the floor to the normal ground level.

  1. Nuisance: Loose or defective interior plastering or cracked plaster.

Abatement: Patch and re-decorate the crack.

  1. Nuisance: Leaking bathroom tiles due to shower splashing water in the tile wall, which has loosen the tile glue.

Abatement: Use water proof adhesive to eliminate

  1. Nuisance: Wet and damp floor due to soil drainage or water table that is near the surface of the ground.

Abatement: Reconstruct with sound footing

  1. Nuisance: Erection of a three bedroom bungalow which is at DPC level without an approved building plan.

Abatement: Stop further construction work and proceed to have the building plan approved before any construction operations

  1. Nuisance: Erection of a 6 bedroom duplex on a drainage channel obstructing free flow of rainwater which is not in consonance with the original approved building plan.

Abatement: Demolished the building forthwith to allow for free flow of water.

(Source: Idibia, 2009).

Procedures for carrying out residential building sanitation

In order to have a very comprehensive inspection it is necessary to proceed from the external of the house and in progress to the interior of the house so that no point may be over looked.

  1. Enter the house through the main door/entrance.
  2. Ask for the landlord, caretaker or any adult member of the house and introduce yourself take the name and address of the landlord or the caretaker
  • Note the location and type of premises.
  1. Take down the date and time of inspection
  2. Begin the inspection from the exterior part of the house and progress to the interior.
  3. Draft and serve abatement notice to the person by whose act the nuisance exists
  • External Inspection

Check the following:

  • Frontage: Examine the general condition of the frontage of the house. i.e. whether there is a drainage system, open space around, accumulation of refuse, overgrown weeds, stagnant water, kiosk, evidence of dampness especially at the floor level, etc.
  • Rear: Look out for (outhouses) latrine, bathroom, store kitchen accommodation and dustbin, source of water supply and drainage system, soak away and septic tank. Noting their positions, structures and conditions.
  • Roof: Look out for the condition of the roof and type of roof, for main building and out houses, whether it is overhanging roof or not well constructed, sagging, and dilapidated.
  • Wall: Look out for the condition of the external wall, whether it is cement plastered or not, painted or not, cracked or damped.
  1. Internal inspection

Check the following

  1. Condition of the passage whether dirty or clean
  2. Condition of the ceiling, present or not, cracked or broken or sagging.
  • Rooms: Examine the numbers of rooms, Dimension of the room must be known, number of occupier in the rooms must be known to detect over-crowding, condition of ventilation and lighting, condition of walls and floors in the room should be noted. Dimensions of windows and any evidence of dampness should be noted. Adequate arrangement of properties.
  1. Store/kitchen: Examine the method of storage of food, means of preparing and cooking of food, ceiling conditions, check for evidence of vermin and rodents infestation.
  2. Sanitary conveniences (toilets and bathroom in houses): Numbers of latrine and bathroom units, condition of the floor, walls, ceiling, ventilation and lighting.


The nuisance and defects detected at the premises should be remedied through the service of an abatement notice served in accordance with the public health laws and building regulations.

School building sanitation (private or public)

School sanitation comprises of those activities carried out in schools to protect the pupils and staff from the adverse effect of insanitary and unsafe school environment. A conducive environment devoid of accidents and communicable disease is required to promote learning in schools.

Aims and objectives of school sanitation

  • To ensure optimal sanitary environment safe and conducive for physical, mental and emotional well-being of the school children in order to achieve maximum benefits from educational programmes.
  • To promote conditions at school as well as the practices of school staff and children that will prevent sanitation related diseases e.g. diarrhoea, cholera, typhoid etc.
  • To bring about positive change in the hygiene behaviour of school children and the community at large.
  • To protect school children from insanitary surroundings and hazards.
  • To encourage compliance with stipulated sanitary standard for schools.
  • To create conducive environment for learning.

Procedure for carrying out school sanitation  

Write to the school headmaster or principal and intimate him of your intention to inspect the school. The area to inspect in the school includes:

  1. Inspect the classroom and building spaces:
  • The classrooms should be spacious enough between pupils at least 5 meters apart.
  • There should be adequate spacing between the walls of the building to allow free flow of fresh air.
  1. Inspect the building walls/floors:
  • Floor should be well concreted, but should not be too polished to prevent accidents and falls.
  • Walls should be cement plastered and painted.
  1. Inspect the playground:
  • It should be free from dangerous toys, and materials
  • Should be kept clean.
  1. Inspect the first – aid box:
  • Should be well equipped with necessary materials e.g. scissors, drugs, spirit cotton wool, mentholated spirit etc.
  • Should be manned by a trained medical personnel.
  1. Inspect the ventilation and lighting system.
  • There should be adequate windows on both sides, free flow of air (at least 2/6 of the classroom dimension).
  • There should be adequate natural and artificial lighting.
  1. Inspection of sources of water:
  • There should be availability of adequate portable water supply from bore-hole or sanitary well.
  • The sources of water should not be too close to source of pollution (latrine or refuse dump site).
  1. Inspect Food Vendor/Canteens
  • School meals should be provided with a balanced nutrient
  • Food vendor must undergo periodic medical examination
  • General surrounding must be kept clean
  • Food vendors must be free from contagious diseases.
  1. Inspect the sanitary conveniences:
  • Latrine accommodation should be adequately provided e.g. VIP latrine, NC latrine etc.
  • There should be separate units of latrine & urinals for the male and female
  • There should be a cleaner to regulate maintain the latrine
  • The latrine should not involve handing of fresh faeces.
  • There should be water for hand wasting after visiting the latrine.
  • Every 30 pupils, must be provided with of least one toilet (it must be separate for  boys and girls)
  1. Inspect the solid waste management system
  • There should be a waste bin in every classroom
  • There should be a large sanitary dust-bin located in a strategies place within the school premises and to be emptied or burnt regularly.
  1. Inspect the environmental sanitation condition
  • There should be no form of pollution (air or noise) in the classroom environment.
  • There should be no over-grown weeds around the school premises.
  • There should be no form of indiscriminate refuse disposal within the school premises.
  • All factors that could cause physical, biological and chemical hazards in the school environment that could adversely affect learning should be prevented and controlled.
  • Write a report, communicate findings and take actions.

Buckatarias sanitation

A buckatariat has the same health requirement as that of a restaurant but a lesser level. A health officer while on inspection of a buckatariat must inspect among other things, the following:

  1. Food safes protected with wire gauze
  2. Self closive wire gauze door
  • Adequate ventilation (cross ventilation)
  1. Provision of ceiling facilities
  2. The floor of the premises must be concreted
  3. The kitchen must be detached to prevent smoke nuisance
  • Condition of equipment used for preparing and serving food.
  • Adequate lightning.
  1. Mini-storage
  2. Method s of discharging of waste water.
  3. Sources of water supply
  • Condition of the services tables and seat
  • Condition of the walls
  • Methods of refuse disposal
  1. Certificate of fitness of food handlers.

Write report, communicate findings and take  

Trade fair, camps and recreational sites sanitation

          In carrying out the inspection, the EHO should ensure the following;

  1. Request for the approved building plan.
  2. The centre should be located at the outskirt of a city to prevent noise nuisance.
  3. There must be adequate sanitary water supply, portable and safe.
  4. Provision of adequate sanitary facilities which must be well maintained
  5. Adequate facilities must be made for effective disposal of waste.
  6. Refuse bins must be located at strategic point for the use and easy conveyance when full.
  7. There must be a health centre and a standby ambulance to convey any sick person to the hospital.
  8. Adequate security must be put in place (preferable a police post).
  9. Adequate lightening must be provided in and around the fair environment.
  10. Means of communication must be available and stable for easy link with the outside world.
  11. The general environment must be sanitary.
  12. They shall be conspicuous warning on the presence of artificial
  13. natural hazards in and around the swimming pool.
  14. Request for certificate of last disinfestations .
  15. Write a report, communicate findings, and take actions

Procedure for routine market building sanitation

Routine market inspection should be scheduled and used to educate traders on market sanitation and hygiene during general inspection. On visiting a market, the Environment Health Officer shall introduce himself to the chairperson(s) market master of the market association informing him/them about his mission. After the introduction, he/she shall request for at least two (2) representative of the association to accompany her/him for the inspection and also arrange for a general post-inspection meeting with all key members. The involvement of the representative in the inspection process and the general briefing, shall promote the principle of involvement and participation.

During this inspection, all deficiencies and hazards found in and round the market are noted. At the conclusion of the inspection, the finding shall be discussed with the representative of the various traders groups (preferably during a general meeting called for the purpose) and they should be allowed to suggest ways of abating the nuisance detected. Copied of the inspection forms shall be deposit with the appropriate marked associated executives while the original inspection forms shall be filled. The procedure for market inspection is systematic, beginning as follows.

  1. External inspection
    1. Carry out general inspection:

The inspection team (Environment Health Officer and Market Association Representatives) shall note the general cleanliness of the market surrounding and check for:

  1. Obstruction of access roads as a result of street trading, abandoned vehicles or disused materials.
  2. Over-grown weeds, which may harbour reptiles, rats and other vermin of public health importance
  • Tall tress which may be prejudicial to the health of the traders
  1. Heaps of refuse which may harbour reptiles, rats and serve as breeding ground fro other disease vectors
    1. Inspect water supply.

Check for:

  1. Source of water supply.
  2. Adequacy of water
  • Quality of water
  1. Potential sources of contamination
  2. Adequacy of water containers
  3. Possible leakages
  • Evidence of good drainage system.
    1. Inspect toilet accommodation.

Check for :

  1. Adequacy for market population and sex composition
  2. Evidence of crack on walls and floor
  • Adequacy of ventilation
  1. Adequacy of lighting
  2. Evidence of rat runs and pest infestation
  3. Adequacy and functional drainage system
  • Evidence of pipe leakage
  • Obnoxious odour
    1. Inspect bathroom accommodation
  1. Adequacy fro market population and se composition.
  2. Evidence of broken soil drainpipes
  • Evidence of crack on walls and floor
  1. Adequacy of ventilation
  2. Adequacy of lighting
  3. Adequate and functional drainage system
    1. Inspect refuse disposal
  • Adequacy of refuse collection bays
  • Evidence that refuse bays are well kept and refuse is collected regularly
  • Evidence of drain blocked by refuse
    1. Inspect excreta disposal

Check for:

  • Evidence of pipe leakage
  • Evidence of overfilled tanks leading to spillage
  • Evidence of crack on septic tank and pit latrine
  • Presence of ventilating pipes/opening
  • Distance to source of drinking water
  • State of on-site sewage treatment plant (if available)


B:      Internal inspection:

  1. Inspect the floor

Check for:

  • Cleanliness of the floor and look out for broken or cracked floor
  • Evidence of rat infestation (rat holes, runs and dropping).
  • Evidence of dampness
    1. Inspect the walls

Check for:

  • Dilapidated walls.
  • Cracks, liable to harbour vermin
  • Evidence of dampness on the walls
    1. Inspect roof and ceiling.

Check for:

  • Evidence of roof leakage
  • Cleanliness and presence of cobwebs
  • Sagging of the ceiling
    1. Inspect passages and stairways.

Check for:

  • Objects (including display of wares) that are likely to obstruct free movement along passage and stairways.
  • Adequacy of passages and stairways for emergency evacuations
  • Stairways and passages shall have a width greater than (12 centimetres) and be provided with hand rails on both sides that are in a good state of repair
  • Stairways and passage shall be well lighted
  • Stairway steps shall be in a state of good repair.
    1. Inspect stalls.

Check for:

  • Evidence of overcrowding
  • Adequacy of lighting
  • Adequacy ventilation: look for object kept in such manner as to obstruct the free flow of fresh air.
  • Availability of dustbin with lid.
    1. Inspect food premises (bukaterias)

Check for:

  • Compliance with the policy guidelines on food premises
  • Cleanliness of the general environment
  • Evidence of overcrowding
  • Adequate ventilation
  • Evidence of rat and pest infestation
  • Adequate lighting
  • Evidence of cracked wall and defective floor
  • Evidence of smoke nuisance
  • Handing cobwebs
  • Hand washing facilities
    1. Inspect health post or first aid room.

Check for:

  • Availability of a room for care of ill or injured people
  • Availability of first aid supplies
  • Appropriate location of toilet and sinks in the room.
    1. Inspect fire control post

Check for:

  1. Adequate and functional fire extinguishing equipment/facilities
  2. Adequate of fire control personnel.

Write report and communicate findings.

Milk and Milk Products Building Sanitation

The following should be required for and inspected by the officer before approving such premises:

  • There must be provision for a potable water supply which must be from approved sources.
  • All those who wish to engage in milk production must have undergone a compulsory training by public health authority.
  • Equipment necessary and used for the production must be kept clean and sterilized.
  • No sick persons suffering from infections, diseases such as catarrh, septic sores should be allowed into the environment of the production
  • Regular inspection of the entire premises, equipment and other requirements must be carried out by the environmental health officers.
  • There must be a standby functional generator.
  • Laboratory confirmation of the water and other specimen of production must be carried out regularly with a period of 3-6 months by a competent government microbiologist.
  • Periodic medical examination for workers

Bakery building sanitation

Write a report and take action

The sanitation of bakery follows the same steps as of other regulated premises but the following cardinal points must be noted.

  • It must not share entrance with a dwelling house
  • Protection of all the premises doors and windows with wire gauze
  • A potable water from very good source must be provided with dunnages for flour.
  • The baking pans must be cleaned regularly daily before using it to bake.
  • High standard of cleanliness and hygiene of staff must be ensured.
  • No person with septic hands or sores or sick of any illness or suffering from any disease should be allowed into the premises.
  • All efforts should be made by the health officers to prevent food adulteration.
  • Medical examination of all workers must be carried out within regular intervals.
  • There should be high standard of environmental hygiene and cleanliness of the premises must be a matter of priority.
  • There must be provision of cloakroom for use of workers.
  • Premises that do not conform with the above regulations should be closed down.
  • Write a report and take action

Cold store building sanitation

The following are those requirements that an environmental health officer should inspect and report upon before a standard approval is given for the operation of such a cold store.

  • The premises must be sited away from a dumping site waterlogged soil.
  • The floor of the environment must be concreted.
  • The structures should be constructed with impervious materials
  • There must be a standby functional generator.
  • The cold room environment must be well-lighted.
  • The inside of the cold room must be well arranged with dunnages for easy arrangement of fish packets.
  • Regular inspection should be carried out as necessary by the health officers to detect any stale fish.
  • All the necessary sanitary conveniences must be provided in the premises.
  • In the event of a light off for more than 3 days, all the fish should be condemned.
  • Write a report, communicate findings and take actions

Hotel, motel and restaurants building sanitation

The following are the sanitary procedures for inspecting hotels, motels and restaurants.

  1. Inspect main bar accommodation/eating apartment

The minimum drinking and eating floor area should be about 130sqm with adequate ventilation and lightning

  • The floor should be concreted and properly drained.
  • The doors and windows should be made proofed by protecting them with good wire gauze
    1. Inspect lodging accommodation
  • Each room should not be less than 4m by 3m with adequate ventilation and lightening.
  • There should be no overcrowding (preferable one adult in a room)
  • Customers shall be provided with clean linen towel, bed sheets, pillow cases with daily replacement of same whether used or not
    1. Inspect storage facilities
  • A rat proof store with dunnage or platform of one foot high and one foot from any structure should be provided for storing foodstuffs and cartons of drinks.
  • No carton of drinks or bags of foodstuff should be left on the floor.
    1. Inspect cooking apartment
  • There should be a detached, adequate and suitable kitchen accommodation to prevent smoke nuisance and fire hazards.
  • Food handlers shall obtained medical certificate of fitness periodically from a government hospitals.
    1. Inspect recreational facilities
  • There shall be located outskirt of the hotel
  • There should be portable water supply
    1. Inspect potable water supply
  • There should be portable water supply regularly available
  • There should be routine water quality analysis out in a lab by a certified body.
    1. Inspect ventilation and lighting system
  • Ventilation and lighting system should be adequate.
    1. Inspect fire fighting equipment
  • There should be a functional fire adequate of fire fighting personnel
    1. Inspect workers health and personal hygiene
  • No sick person (especially sufferers of infectious and skin disease) should be allowed in the premises or allowed to take part in the preparation, distribution and sales of foods.
  • There should be adequate provision for wash hand basin in the kitchen and eating apartment.
  • Workers should put on white aprons and caps while on duty and this must be kept clean always.
  • Workers should be medically examined periodically and declare free from any bowel and skin diseases.
  • There should be cloakroom for workers dresses.
  • There should be no finger painting by workers.
    1. Inspect latrine accommodation
  • Latrine accommodation should be standard, adequate and suitable (Separate provision should be made for male and female.
  • The latrine should be constantly covered: fly proofed and kept clean.
  • There should be adequate and suitable bath and washing apartment.
  • There should be urinal for separate sex
    1. Inspect refuse collection and disposal
  • There should standard sanitary dustbin with fitting cover for temporary collection and safe disposal of refuse.

Inspect animal rearing

  • No animal or fowl should be reared in the premises
    1. Inspect first aid box
  • There should be a first aid box for immediate treatment of injuries
  • It should be well equipped with drugs cotton wool, spirit etc.
  • It should be manage by nurse.
    1. Inspect water supply
  • The water in use should be from approved sources, e.g. pipe borne water or borehole.
    1. Evidence of fumigation
  • There should be evidence of periodic insect and vermin control.
  • Other sanitary measure shall undertaken exterminate vectors of diseases.
  • Write report, communicable findings and take appropriate action

Sitting and layout

The EHO should assess the sitting of an abattoir in respect of:

  • Water bodies
  • Dwelling houses
  • Other trades

Lairage: Evidence of sanitary and appropriate lairage.

Inspection of abattoir:

Assess the abattoir for the following:

  • General sanitary conditions
  • Pest and vectors status


Assess for:

  • Cleanliness of slaughter hall and all work rooms
  • Cleanliness of the area where the meat is hung.
  • Cleanliness and tidiness of cloakroom.

Lighting and ventilation

Assess for:

  • Adequate of lighting in work area
  • Adequate of ventilation in work area.


Assess for:

  • Cleanliness
  • Dilapidation
  • Evidence of cracks liable to harbour vermin
  • Evidence of dampness.
  • Tiling of the walls to a height of 3cm (10ft) minimum.

Ceiling (in office and stores)

Assess for:

  • leakage/sagging ceiling
  • Lodgement of dirt, hanging cobwebs, etc


Assess for:

  • Continuous washing of floors during business hours.
  • Evidence of broken or cracked floors.
  • Rat infestation ( rat holes, runs and and droppings)
  • Absences of tilling of floor.

Solid waste management

Assess for:

  • Adequate waste containers for storage of abattoir waste.
  • Suitability and adequate of refuse bins
  • Adequacy of refuse bays and regularity of refuse collection.
  • Rat and pest infestation at refuse bays
  • Waste spillage
  • Evidence of receptacles for collection of animal waste.
  • Regularity of collection for animals waste.
  • Evidence of records of abattoir waste.

Toilet accommodation

Assess for:

  • Availability of sanitary conveniences.
  • Evidence of leakages of pipes and backflow of water.
  • Overfilled tanks leading to spillage
  • Evidence of cracks on septic tank/VIPL (ventilated improved Pit Latrine)
  • Presence of ventilating pipes/opening in VIPL.
  • Ensure regularity to source of water supply.
  • State of on-site sewage treatment plant (if available)


Assess for:

  • Adequacy and functionally of drainage system

Water supply

Assess for:

  • Source of water supply
  • Adequacy of water supply, storage and distribution
  • Quality of water supply
  • Potential sources of contamination
  • Adequacy of water storage containers
  • Possible leakage of water pipes.

Washing facilities

Assess for:

  • Suitable wash hand basins.
  • Adequacy of water supply storage and distribution
  • Availability of soap and brushes, ash, clay, drier and hand towel (if available)
  • Availability of wash rooms


  • Evidence of broken drain pipes
  • Evidence of broken floors, tiles or walls
  • Adequacy of the drainage system
  • Sanitary wash hand basin

Effects of poor housing/building

The effects include:

  • Fire Disaster
  • Flooding
  • Dampness
  • Building Collapse
  • ill – ventilation
  • Accident
  • Diseases such as:
  1. Respiratory diseases: common cold, tuberculosis, influenza, measles, whooping cough, pneumonia, meningitis .
  2. Skin infections: Scabies, ringworm, impetigo, leprosy
  3. Rat-borne diseases: Plague, typhus fever, leptospirosis, lassa fever.
  4. Insect-borne diseases: Malaria, relapsing fever, etc.
  5. Faecal oral diseases: Cholera, diarrhoea, typhoid and paratyphoid, poliomyelitis, amoebiasis, dysentery, etc.

In many cases, improved building sanitation and the provision of basic sanitation facilities can interrupt the occurrence of the above hazard especially, faecal-borne diseases. Let us consider house the faecal –borne diseases are transmitted to a new host.

Sanitation barrier

Faecal-borne disease cycle may be broken at various levels, viz;

  • Through the provision of adequate sanitation latrine accommodation .e.g. V.I.P latrine, WC latrine etc.
  • Through protection of sources of water supply e.g. well, bore-hole, stream etc.
  • Through protection of foods
  • Through personal hygienic practices cycle as washing of hands after visiting latrine, washing of mouth before and after eating, covering of mouth while sneezing, coughing etc.
  • Through sanitation refuse disposal methods e.g. sanitation land fill, composting, incineration etc

Possible ways to improve poor housing conditions

According Olurunda et al. (2010) the following are ways to improve poor housing conditions:

  • Enactment/enforcement of housing policies, bye-laws and regulations.
  • Granting of housing loans by government to the masses, especially poor people.
  • Proper building layout
  • Provision of building plans before building erection.
  • Proper supervision of building construction by skilled personnel.
  • Provision of essential sanitary requirement in building.

Building collapse

Building collapse refers to a situation where a standing building structure falls unexpectedly which may result to damage of property psychological trauma and death of occupiers.

Causes of building collapse

  • Destruction of wooden structure by termite and wooden worm
  • Weak foundation
  • Non-compliance to building regulations.
  • Use of substandard construction materials
  • Erection of building in marshy damp and water logged or made-up soil.
  • Depilated walls of building in a state of disrepair for a long time.

Measures to combat building collapse

  • Enforcement of building laws
  • Demolition of dilapidated building which are prone to collapse
  • Using qualified architects to design buildings
  • Use of quality construction materials
  • Effective supervision and monitoring of building construction y appropriate agencies.

Building regulatory standard for an ideal building (house)

To improve the housing and environmental conditions for the majority of families, building regulatory standards recommends that a house/building should meet up with the following standard, viz:


  • Should be elevated from its surrounding in order to prevent flooding during rains.
  • There should be an access road to the site.
  • Should be free from source of pollution.
  • Should not be water logged
  • Should be naturally drained

Set back

For proper lighting and ventilation, there should be an open space all round the house-called “set back”. The build-up area in rural area should not exceed one-third of the total area, while in urban area, the built-up area may be up to two-thirds because of high cost of land. The set back should not obstruct lighting and ventilation


  • Should be made of impermeable material.
  • Must be smooth for easy washing and kept clean and dry.
  • Must be free from cracks and crevices to prevent the breeding of insects and harbourage of dust.
  • The height of the plingth should be 2 to 3 feet.



  • Should have a low heat capacity i.e should not absorb heat and at the same time conduct.
  • Should be reasonably strong and unsuitable for harbouring rats and vermins.
  • Should be smooth and cement plastered.
  • Should be built with block of any of the following sizes, 5-inch, 6-inches and 9-inches


  • The height of the roof should not be less than loft in the absence of air-conditioning for comfort
  • It should have a low heat transmittance coefficient.


  • The number and area of room should be increased according to family size, so that the recommended floor space per person may be made available.
  • There should be separate room for different sexes (male & female) for privacy. Overcrowding is considered to exist if 2 persons over 9 year of age, not husband and wife of opposite sexes are obligated to sleep in the same room.
  • The room sizes should range from 12 x 12, 12 x 10, 10 x 10 feet.
  • Every room must contain at least one window for ventilation and lightening
  • The maximum height of the room should not be less than 2.7m.
  • A room must not be occupied by more than two adults and one child, whose age must not be more than 9 years.
  • The floor space of a living room should not be at least 120sq. ft. for occupancy by more than one person and at least 100sq; ft. for occupancy by a single person.
  • The floor space of a living rooms per person should not be less than 50sq; ft, the optimal is 100sq; ft.

The accepted standards for floor space are:

110sq. ft or more –        –        –        –                  –             2 persons

90 – 100 sq.ft       –        –        –        –        –        –        –    1½ persons

70 – 90 sq.ft.        –        –        –        –        –        –        –    1 persons

50 – 70 sq. ft                 –        –        –        –        –        –    ½ persons

Under 50 sq.ft.     –        –        –        –        –        –             nil

(A baby under 12 months is not counted children between 1 to 10 years are counted as half a unit).

The accepted standards per person per room are;

1 room     –  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        2 persons

2 rooms   –  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        3 persons

3 rooms   –  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        5 persons

4 rooms   –  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        7 persons

5 or more rooms              –        –        –        –        –        10 persons                                                                 (additional 2  for each further room).

Cubic space

Unless means are provided for mechanical replacement of air, the height of the rooms should be such as to give an air space of at – least 500 C.ft per capital, preferable 1,000 C.ft.

Windows and doors

  • Unless mechanical ventilation and artificial lighting are provided, every living room should be provided with at least two windows, and at least one of them should open directly on to an space.
  • It should be placed at a height of not more than 3 feet above the ground in living rooms.
  • Windows should be 1/5th of the floor space.
  • Doors and window combined should have 2/5th of the floor area.

Lighting system

  • The day light factor should exceed 1 percent over half of the floor area.
  • Windows and doors should be provided for natural lightening
  • There should be provision for artificial lightening.

Importance of lighting in building

  • Adequate lighting increase visual capacities
  • Promotes good health and reduce stressful condition of the eye.
  • Reduces home accidents
  • Promotes good security arrangement.
  • Reduces the danger of household pests e.g. centipedes, scorpions, snakes etc.


Artificial and natural ventilation system should be adequately provided for regular interchange of air.

Types of ventilation

  • Through ventilation
  • Cross ventilation
  • Back – back ventilation

Importance of ventilation

  1. Ventilation enhances the supply of fresh outdoor air into the building
  2. Reduce the extent of damp conditions
  • Reduce the spread of air-borne infections

Kitchen accommodation

  • Every dwelling house must have a separate kitchen.
  • There should be adequate lighting and ventilation in order to minimize hazard of accident, heat smell and risk of fire.
  • Floor should be smooth and made of impervious materials.
  • Should be provided with arrangement for storing food stuffs.
  • There should be adequate water supply.
  • Should be provided with arrangement for proper drainage.
  • There should be a high standard for cleanliness in the kitchen.

Bathroom accommodation

  • Floor should be smooth and impervious.
  • The wall should be cement plastered and made of impervious materials.
  • There should be adequate supply of water.
  • It should be provided with a soak away pit to forestall the formation of puddles of water.

Latrine accommodation

A sanitary latrine accommodation must be adequately provided. The various types of latrine include:

Water independent latrine such as:

  • Ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine
  • Simple pit latrine
  • Twin pit latrine

Water dependent latrine such as:

  • Aqua privy
  • Pour to flush
  • Water closet (w.c.)

Adequate provision of water supply (where necessary).

  • Must be provided with a septic tank and soak-away pit (where necessary).
  • Must be adequate ventilated to prevent odour.

Recommended units of latrine accommodation for an ideal building are as follows:

  • 1 latrine unit for 10 persons
  • 2 latrine units for 20 persons
  • 3 latrine units for 40 persons
  • 4 latrine units for 75 persons
  • 5 latrine units for 100 persons

For more than 100 persons, 1 more additional toilet for 30 persons.

Whichever type of latrine dated for must posses the following qualities:

  1. Should not involves the handing of fresh faeces
  2. Should not contaminate surface or underground water.
  3. Should not be accessible to flies or other pests
  4. Should be easy to construct and operate.
  5. Should not emit obnoxious odour.
  6. It must be emphasized that hands must be washed with soap and water after the use of latrine.

Refuse disposal system

  • Must be provided with a sanitary dust-bin for refuse storage
  • To forestall the menace of solid waste management, refuse in the bin should be regularly & sanitary.

Disposed off through the following methods:

  • Sanitary land-fill
  • Composting
  • Incineration
  • Burning
  • Open dumping
  • Burying etc.

Some of the problems associated with improper solid waste management include:

  • Emission of offensive odour
  • Unsightliness
  • Flies and rodents infestation
  • Fire outbreak
  • Air pollution
  • Flooding
  • Disease outbreak etc.

Potable water supply

The house should have a safe and adequate water supply available at all time. The recommended sources of portable water for use in buildings/houses include the following:

  • Sanitary dug well
  • Borehole
  • Harvesting of rain water, etc

Water supply to a building must possess the following characteristics,

  • it should be colourless
  • it should be odourless
  • it should be tasteless
  • must be free from suspended matters
  • should be soft and not hard
  • should be free from pathogenic organisms.


  • Every building must be provided with a separate place (store) for the storage of food stuffs.
  • It should be well equipped with storage ranks
  • Must be well ventilated, with adequate lighting.
  • Floor should be smooth, made of impervious materials
  • Wall should be cement plastered.

Sanitary fittings required in an ideal building

These are appliances fixed in a building for the flushing away of fowl or waste water (sewage) flowing by gravity through the drain to septic tank and soak away pits.

Qualities of good sanitary fitting

  • It should be simple design and construction
  • Should have a pleasant apparent
  • Should be accessible for inspection of all time
  • Should be easy to maintain
  • Should be self cleansing, smooth, non-absorbent and permit easy cleansing.

Types of sanitary fittings

  • Water closet
  • Urinals
  • Baths
  • Sinks
  • Wash hand basin (laboratory basin)

Maintenance of sanitary fittings

Sanitary fitting may be maintained by;

  • Constant flushing of the system immediately after use
  • Replacing worn-out parts
  • Renewing defective appliances
  • Regular cleaning of the appliance when perceived dirty.


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