Environmental sanitation variable are factors that influence the state of an individual, causing environmental pollution and disease transmission (Avwoke, 2012). According to Lesley (2004), environmental sanitation variable are factors that exist in the physical surrounding which affects man, flora and fauna either positively or negatively.
The implication of the environmental sanitation variable is that the magnitude of environmental destruction continues to rise affecting more and more people and communities. There is no doubt that environmental sanitation variable is responsible for disease transmission and affect human health and environmental devastatingly. In the last few years, mankind has taken to lifestyles that have promoted environmental factor and defilement of the earth biosphere. Some sector of human endeavour that has been pointed to as the problem of ecosystem are poor environmental sanitation, overcrowding, improper disposal of refuse, poor water sanitation, poor housing condition, and all these variables has negative impact on the environment. Poor environment sanitation is one of the environmental sanitation variables in disease transmission. The term sanitation covers the whole field of controlling the environment with the view of preventing disease and promotes health. So when there is poor environmental sanitation, that is, when the environment is unkempt, over grown weed etc. it will now pose a threat to the health of man causing the transmission of disease (Parks, 2009). Poor water sanitation also cause disease transmission because there can be no state of positive health and wellbeing without safe water. When the water is contaminated with chemicals or debris it can lead to water related diseases to man, Much of the ill-health which affects humanity, especially in developing countries can be traced to lack of safe and unwholesome water supply, lack of clean water can cause or lead to disease to crop, animals and people.
Overcrowding is another variable that can cause disease transmission in the sense that when there is overcrowding there will be disease transmission. Overcrowding is whereby more people living within a single dwelling than there is space for, so that movement is restricted and rest and sleep will be difficult. Overcrowding could lead to infection diseases, lack of sleep, violence and mental disorder.
Overcrowding promote the spread of respiratory infections such as tuberculosis, influenza and diphtheria. Improper disposal of refuse can lead to disease transmission in the sense that it will constitute to health hazards through fly infestation, it attracts rodents and vermin, it can lead to water and soil pollution, cause unsightliness, and also the pathogens which may be present in the solid waste may be conveyed back to mans food through flies and dust so when there is inadequate or improper disposal of refuse it will lead to disease transmission as an environmental sanitation variable (Parks, 2009).
Another environmental sanitation variable in disease transmission is poor housing. Poor housing condition are no longer confined to narrow health criteria like per capital space and floor space poor housing can be caused through the site of the house, the floor, the walls, the roof, the room’s etc. if there is problem in these parts listed above it can lead to respiratory disease transmission or infections, skin infection, rat infection, home accidents etc. so when the house is not in order it will cause transmission.
According to Marton (2006), environmental sanitation variable are facts situations, effects, behaviour of all things small or big that may have impact on the environment.
The concept of environmental sanitation variables
Environmental sanitation variable is any factor, biotic or abiotic that influence living organism and also changes that local environment (Gilpin, 2008). In describing the term, Lesley (2004) stated that environmental sanitation variable are factors that exist in man’s physical surrounding that affect man, flora, funna either positively or negatively. Man’s environment in the opinion of Obasi (2004) is the sum total of all external condition influencing the growth and development of an organism, stressing that the key to man’s health lies largely in his environment.
In fact, most of man’s ill-health can be traced to adverse environmental sanitation variable such as water pollution, soil pollution, air pollution, poor housing condition, poor environmental sanitation and insect vectors of disease which pose a constant threat to man’s health. For description purpose, environment has been divided into three components. All closely related via, physical which include water, soil, housing, waste and radiation, biological which include plant and animals life like bacteria, viruses’ insect, rodent and animals social which include customs, culture, habits, income, occupation and religion (Park, 2007).
Types of environmental sanitation variables
The environmental sanitation variable in the study area according to Park (2009) are:
- Environmental sanitation
- Water sanitation
- Improper disposal of refuse/excretal
- Poor housing condition
- Poor personal hygiene
Environmental sanitation is activities aimed at improving or maintaining the standard of basic environmental conditions affecting the well-being of people. These conditions include (i) clean and safe water supply (ii) clean and safe ambient air (iii) efficient and safe animal, human, and industrial waste disposal (iv) protection of food from biological and chemical contaminants and (v) adequate housing in safe surrounding.
The term sanitation covers the whole field of controlling the environment with view of preventing disease and promoting health. The high death rate, infant mortality rate, sickness rate. And poor standard of health are in-fact largely due to defective environmental sanitation. Therefore, improvement of environmental sanitation is crucial for the prevention of disease and promotion of health of individuals and communities (Gilpin, 2008).
Water sanitation is defined as a process of cleaning and purifying water so it is safe for use. Example of water sanitation is filter that removes impurities from water.
Olojoba (2009) Stated that lack of clean water can lead to disease transmission. These diseases are major causes of suffering and death in an emerging situation. Poor water sanitation also, causes disease transmission. Because there can be no state of positive health and wellbeing without safe water.
Therefore an unwholesome water supply can cause long term health problem for occupants. Most of the ill-health which affects human especially in developing countries can be traced to lack of safe and unwholesome water supply (Park, 2009).
According to World Health Organization (WHO), overcrowding is a situation in which more people are living within a single dwelling than there is space for, so that movement is restricted and rest, sleep, privacy will be difficult.
Overcrowding can lead to infectious disease, lack of sleep, violence, frustration, anxiety and mental disorder. Overcrowding can also promote the spread of respiratory tract disease such as tuberculosis, influenza and diphtheria. In most case children are said to be more affected. It is as a result of unemployment and lack of finance, which can lead to psychosocial stress, unhappiness and probably mental disorder.
Improper disposal of refuse/excreta
The improper disposal of refuse/ excretal can result in contamination of water bodies (rivers) which can lead to water borne disease such as typhoid, paratyphoid fever, dysenteries, diarrhoea, cholera, etc.
The improper disposal of refuse have several harmful effects, including health risks and contamination of surround, emission of offensive odour and reducing the aesthetic beauty of the environment it can also constitute health hazards through fly-infestation, causes unsightliness, soil pollution, water pollution and air pollution (Olojoba, 2009). Waste management is important because improper stored refuse can cause health, safety and economic problem.
Poor housing condition
Housing includes not only the physical structure providing shelter, but also immediate surroundings, and their related community services and facilities. Poor housing condition can be caused through choosing of the site, the floor, the walls, the roof, the room, and the total surrounding. Poor housing condition are associated with a wide range of health conditions including respiratory infections, asthma, injuries, rat infestation and mental disorder (Aibor & Olorunda, 2006).
Poor personal hygiene
Poor personal hygiene can be a sign of self neglect, which is the inability or unwillingness to attend to one’s personal needs. Poor personal hygiene often accompanies certain mental or emotional disorders including several depression and psychotic disorder. Poor person hygiene is one of the environmental sanitation variable that are capable of transmitting disease such as skin infection, eczema, scabies etc. because when one is not neat or not kept clean or in the right proportion, it will be to pose one to one serves of infection or the other (Hogan, 2011).
The implication of environmental sanitation variables on the environment
- Water Pollution
- Air Pollution
- Soil Pollution
- Climate Change
Water pollution refers to adverse changes in the composition or conditions of water, rendering it less suitable for use. These changes may be physical, chemical or biological in water quality that affect living organisms or makes water unsuitable for desired uses (Olojoba, 2009).
The source of pollution resulting from these are:
- Sewage which contains decomposable organic matter and pathogenic agents.
- Industrial and trade waste, which contain toxic agent ranging from mental salts to complex synthetic organic chemicals.
- Agricultural pollutant, which comprise of fertilizers and pesticides and
- Physical pollutant is heat.
Even if the source of water supply and its treatment are of high standard, water pollution may still occur due to corrosion of pipes, leaky joints, and cross connections between water supply pipes and sewage drainage pipes.
According to La Place (1987) as cited in (Olojoba, 2009) is the contamination of the atmosphere by waste product at levels that are unhealthy to human-beings and their environment. The air pollution signifies the presence in the ambient (surrounding) atmosphere of substance e.g. gases mixtures of gases and particulate matter generated by the activities of man in concentrations that interfere with human health, safety or comfort, or injuries to vegetation and animals and other environmental media resulting in chemicals entering the food chain or been present in drinking water and are said to be more affected. In short, it is psychosocial stress, leading to unhappiness and probably mental disorders.
Thereby constituting additional source of human exposure the direct effect of air pollutants on the plants, animals and soil can influences the structure and function of ecosystem, including self regulation ability, thereby affecting the quality of life. Air pollution is one of the present day health problems throughout the world.
Soil pollution is the physical change or the addition of chemical substances to the soil in such a quality that the soil cannot be used for its intended application. The physical change may be degradation resulting from construction, indiscriminate disposal of refuse into the soil. The polluting chemical substance maybe solid waste, liquid or gaseous wastes. The gaseous waste is mainly air pollutant that is wash down through precipitation or dry deposition directly into the soil. The liquid waste may be directly discharged as a source of waste disposed or applied resource to the soil like in irrigation process and addition of fertilizer and it can also be cause by direct dumping of solid waste.
Many scientist regard anthropogenic (human caused) global climate change to be the most important environmental issue of our time. Global climate changes have been identified as the greatest challenge facing human civilization in the 21st century. Both adaption and mitigation are needed. The two are complementary responses to the many threats posed by the increasing GHG (green house gas) emission (Olojoba, 2009).
The health implication of environmental sanitation variables on human health
Outbreak of communicable disease
Environmental sanitation variable lead to communicable disease, these are diseases that are transmitted by direct contact with an affected individual or the individual’s discharges or by indirect means (by a vector).
Environmental factor/variable leads to flies/rodent infestation through indiscriminate management of solid waste (refuse) and waste water result to infestation of fly eggs and larva. Flies could perch on faeces and also thrive on food wastes of refuse and subsequently contaminate man’s food and water transmitting cholera, bacillary dysentery, amoeba, dysentery, typhoid and paratyphoid fever (Olojoba, 2009). Rodent can also transmit the following disease to man such as Lassa fever, plaque, marine typhus, rat bite fever (Olojoba, 2009).
According to Otiti (2013) it have been estimated that 80% of human disease in the world are attributed to unsafe water. Therefore water-borne diseases are diseases due to drinking water that contain disease causative organism. The causative organism can gain entry through contamination of water by human or animal faeces or urine infected with pathogenic bacteria or viruses which are directly transmitted when the water is drunk or used in the preparation of food. Example of these diseases is cholera, typhoid fever, diarrhoea, and poliomyelitis etc.
The role of environmental sanitation variable in disease transmission
Poor environmental sanitation
According to Otiti (2013), poor environmental sanitation can cause diseases such as malaria typhoid fever, plaque, Lassa fever, typhoid fever, cholera etc. when the environment is not cleared of bushes and kept in a good manner and also when there is no proper waste management all these can affect human health and pose man to series of ill health.
Poor water sanitation
According to Otiti (2013) poor water sanitation can lead to water related disease whose example are cholera, typhoid fever, diarrhoea disease, eczema, trachoma, scabies, ascariasis. Due to the consumption of disease causative organisms, when there is no proper treatment of water supply sources and when there is no high standard of personal hygiene.
Improper disposal of refuse/excretal
According to Park (2009) improper disposal of refuse can cause disease such as typhoid, paratyphoid, dysentery, diarrhoea, cholera, look-worm, ascariasis, intestinal infections and parasitic infection. These diseases are not only a burden on the community in term of sickness, mortality and a low expectation of life but a basic deterrent to social and economic progress to human health.
According to Park (2009), overcrowding is a health problem dwellings which can promote the spread of respiratory infection such as tuberculosis, influenza, diphtheria and causes mental disorders, high morbidity and mortality rate are observed where housing condition are not standard which affect health.
Poor housing condition
According to Parks (2009) poor housing can result to cause disease such as respiratory disease, skin infection, accident, rat infestation which can affect human health and well being.
The possible ways of reducing environmental sanitation variables
The possible ways of reducing environmental sanitation variable in disease transmission according to Park (2009) include:
Enforcement and implementation of laws
The government should initiate policies and legislation for protection and development of the environment so as to control the environmental factors to prevent the transmission of diseases.
Proper waste disposal management
Waste should be properly disposal so as to prevent odor nuisance, fly infestation, rodent infestation, unsightliness of the environment, also the burning of refuse in dumps, incinerators and settlements generate air pollutants like dark dense smoke, particles and offensive odour, this should be discouraged.
Regular inspection of premises
Premises should be inspected regularly so as to keep the environment in right order and prevent diseases from the environment. The use of pesticides should be encouraged and all pot holes should be closed, also prevent stagnant water in the environment which encourages the breeding of flies and mosquitoes.
Proper personal hygiene
Proper personal hygiene should be done or carried out both inside and outside. Like cleaning the environment, washing of dirty utensils and clothes etc. personal hygiene prevent the transmission of disease when everything is kept in order.
Effective environmental sanitation
Effective environmental sanitation should be carried out in the environment always so as to prevent disease. It also makes us to see the beauty of the environment, and it provide a safe environment for human dwelling and increase the aesthetic beauty of the environment.
Health education of the public
The public should be enlightened on how to take care of the environment, through proper environmental sanitation, good personal hygiene regular inspection of premises. If all these are done it will promote the environment and prevent disease transmission.
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