Conceptual study on arthritis

Arthritis is an inflammation disease that exerts its greatest impact on those joint of the body that are lined with synovium, a specialized tissue responsible for maintaining the nutrition and lubrication of the joint. The distribution of joint affected (synovial joints) is characteristic. It typically affects the small joints of the join and the feet, and usually both sides equally in a symmetrical distribution, through any synovial joint can be affected.

The initial trigger for Arthritis (A) is unknown. There is evidence to suggest abnormalities in components of the immune system that lead to the body developing abnormal immune and inflammatory reactions, particularly in joints. These change may precede the symptomatic onset of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) in many years. Whatever ser the pathology in motion results in a large increase in blood flow to the joint (giving heat and sometimes redness) proliferation of the synovial membrane with an increase in synovial fluid (swelling and pain due to stretching of pain receptors in the soft tissues around, and the bone on either side of the side of the joint). These features result in rapid loss of muscle around an affected joint and this, along with pain and swelling lead to loss of joint function. If the inflammation of the synovial membrane cannot be suppressed, it will result in increasing damage to the joint, due to the release of protein-degrading enzymes from inflammatory tissues called pannus which can invade the bone and cartilage at the margins of the joint. Damage to joint results in progressive deformity, disability, and handicap. Other structures have synovial bring such as tendon sheath and inflammation of these can result in tendon rupture compounding this widespread inflammatory Arthritis is the fact that Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) affects much more than the points, and is a systematic disease. In all patients the release of large concentration of proteins that drive inflammatory processes (such as tumour necrosis factors – a (TNF- a), result in symptoms of profound fatigue, with a feeling of ongoing influenza-lofe symptoms and even fever, sweat and weight loss. Furthermore, other body organ system may be affected by the inflammatory process, with dryness of the eyes and mouth.

Famakinwa (2001) pointed out that Arthritis as an inflammation of joint. Rheumatism refers to pain in the join and other supporting tissues of the body, such as muscles, tendons and bones. The cause for most forms of Arthritis remains unknown. The types are infections, traumatic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and gout arthritis.

Basavanthappa (2005) stated that arthritis is an inflammation of the joint and is a common disorder of the muscular skeletal system that causes pain and stiffness in the joint. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, systematic disease characterized by recurrent inflammation of the diathrodial joint and related structures.

Matin (2003) defines arthritis as an inflammation of one or more joint, characterized by swelling, warmth, redness of the overlying skin, pain and restriction of motion over 200 disease may cause arthritis including, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, gout, tuberculosis and other infection. Diagnosis is assisted by examination of the pattern of distribution of affected joint, X-ray, blood test and examination of synovial fluid obtained by aspiration of a swollen joint.

Wagman (2000) viewed arthritis as probably the most common of all disabling disease at least in the temperature areas of the world, that arthritis and rheumatoid are term sometimes used interchangeably by the lay man to describe any abnormal condition of the joints, muscles or related tissues. Many rheumatic or arthritis diseases have popular names, such as house maid knee “base ball finger” “weaves bottom”. The disorder is accompanied by inflammation.

Signs and symptoms of arthritis

Symptoms of arthritis include pains and limited function of joints, inflammation of the joint form arthritis is characterized by joint stiffness, swelling, redness and warmth tenderness of the inflamed joint can be present. Many of the forms of arthritis because they are rheumatic diseases can cause symptoms affecting various organs of the body that do not directly involve the joints. Therefore symptoms in some patients with certain forms of arthritis can also include fever, gland swelling (lymph node) weight loss, fatigue, feeling unwell and even symptoms from abnormalities of organs such as the long heart and kidney.

Forms of arthritis

There are two forms of Arthritis namely:

  • Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Osteoarthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis is chronic inflammatory disorders that topically affect the small joints in the hands and feet unlike the tear and wears damage of osteoarthritis rheumatoid arthritis affect the lining of joints, causing a painful swelling that can eventually result in bone erosion and joint deformity.

An autoimmune disorder, rheumatoid arthritis occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks the body’s own tissue.

Osteo-arthritis

Osteo-arthritis is the most common form of arthritis, affecting million of people worldwide. It occurs when the protective cartilage on the ends of the bones wears down over time.

Although osteoarthritis can damage any joint in the body, the disorder most commonly affect joint in the hands, knees, and spine. It can gradually worsen and no cure exists. Staying active, maintaining a healthy weight and other treatment may slow progression of disease and help improve pain and joint function.

Prevention and control measures of arthritis

People can manage and reduce the symptom of arthritis in many ways. For example, they can learn ways to manage arthritis. Self management education interventions, such as the chronic disease self-management programmes (CDSMP) or the online better choices, better health for arthritis programmes, can teach people with arthritis how to manage their condition, lessen its effects and improve their quality of life.

Other helpful measures include:

  • Rehabilitation
  • Heat applications and exercise that contribute to improve mobility of bordered joint
  • Rest is always important
  • Splints
  • Psychotherapy may be combine with physical therapy
  • Use of drugs prescribe the physician is helpful
  • Orthopaedic surgery for severe cases.
  • Surgical removal of the synovial membrane from the affected knee joint can help to alleviate pain and swelling for at least five years and the membrane regenerates.

Effect and complication of arthritis

  • There will be pain and swelling of joints
  • Development of overwhelming sepsis form metastasis of bacteria to other sites
  • Sinus formation
  • Pathological fractures
  • Rheumatic fever occur
  • It can lead to systemic lupus crytheruestosis polymgositis vasecullties.
  • It restrict movement of the joints

Causes/predisposing factors of arthritis

  • Repeated trauma
  • Hereditary factor
  • Aging
  • Infection
  • Chronic stress
  • Obesity (obese people, whose joint must bear heavy weight are more prone).

Psychotherapy for arthritis

  • Rest: bed rest help reduce both joint inflammation and pain
  • Thermal modalities: applying ice pack or heating pads, as well as deep heat provided by ultrasound and hot packs can help relieved local pain- Heat also relaxes muscles with a war bath or shower before exercising may help individual to exercise more easily.
  • Exercise is an important part of arthritis treatment that is most effective when done properly every day.

Physical exercises

  • Using proper body mechanism for getting in and out of a car, chair or tub, as well as for lifting objects.
  • Using the strongest joint and muscles to reduce the stress on smaller joints, for example, carrying a purse or briefcase with a shoulder strap rather than with the hands.
  • Distribution pressure to minimize stress on any joint lifting dishes with both palms rather than with the fingers and carrying heavy load in the arms instead of the hands.
  • If the hands are affected by arthritis, avoid tight gripping, pinching, squeezing and twisting.

Common medications used for arthritis

Some common treatment pain relievers like Aspirin, ibuprofen or naproxen; these drugs are called non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS). It’s may offer some relief, but it cannot halt the disease.

Side effects

NSAIDS may cause stomach upset in some patients in rare cases, it may cause serious bleeding in the stomach or intestine. It may also interact with certain prescription drugs.

References

Antonio, M. (2001): The Cornell illustration Encyclopaedia of health, 1st Edition by Lifeline Press North America.

Clifford, A. (2003): Modern way to health third Edition, Association Nashnill Tedness R.S.A.

Dennis, M. (2010): Community Health and Primary Health Care, second Edition, Life Guards Publication Onitsha Nigeria.

Famakinwa, T. (2002): A Synorpsis of Medical Surgical Nursing. Revised Edition on School of Nursing, Agbor Delta State, Nigeria.

Gemson, S. (2006): Community Health and Answer. 1st Edition Amazing Grace Educational Enterprise. Farkukuru, Nigeria.

Jaja, A. (2008): Primary Health Care/Health Talks. Second Edition, Aim Graphic Port-Harcourt-Nigeria.

Johnson, Y. (2011): Medical Report Series Arthritis 1st Edition Isio Printing, Nigeria.

Ogbaraeruni, B. (2009): Communicable and Non-communicable Disease. Revised Edition, College of Education Warri, Delta State Nigeria.

Okereke, E. (2001): Principal and Primary Health Care, 1st Edition, Noble Graphic Press Onitsha, Nigeria.

Walsh, M. (2005): Clinical Nursing and Related Sciences 6th Edition Elsevier Limited U.S.A.

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