Factors responsible for the increasing spread of HIV/AIDS

Many researchers have been carried out to show the prevalence of
HIV/AIDS among women. Standing and Kisekka (1989) reported that research in
HIV/AIDS is increasingly recognizing the socio cultural, economic, environmental
and political dimensions of the epidemic.

Another factors contributing to the high level oh HIV transmission is
environmental elements like sanitation, diet, unavailable health care and
malnutrition. These contribute to the individuals vulnerability to
opportunistic infections (Anarfi, 1997). A number of studies of HIV infection
have identified risky behaviour such as non-regular multiple partnership, which
may be serial or concurrent. Morris and Kretschmar (1997) identified the use or
non use of condoms, use of contaminated needles and skin piercing instruments
and blood transfusion as a contributing factors in the spread of the disease.
Another transmission pattern of HIV on Nigeria has been associated with
the movement of soldiers, especially those that were sent on peace keeping
operation, most of them returned with the virus, only to in turn infect their
wives. According to Obbo (1993) barracks in Lagos state such as Ojo cantonment
in Ojo, Bonny camp in Victoria Island and air force barrack in Shogunle
experience high rate high of HIV infection following the arrival of military
personnel dealing with unrest situation.
Prostitution is one of the oldest trade in the world, women and young
girls constitute the bulk of those engage in this trade and this has
constituted a major source for the spread of the HIV/AIDS among women. Apart
from engaging in prostitution, some researchers have also discovered that
seaports and high ways connecting big urban centres and connecting Nigeria with
the outside world are powerful foci fir the spread of HIV in the 90’s due to
population movement associated with the trade. Prostitute are also draw into
such areas, truck drivers, fishermen and traders engaged in sexual behaviour
with several women, many of them contacted the virus only to return home to
infect their wives.
Several traditional practices such as child marriage, female genital
mutilation, scarification, tattooing, wife inheritance and polygamy have increased
the epidemic among women and girls. Caldwell, Pieris and Ichuda (1999) opined
that women and girls are particularly vulnerable to contacting AIDS for social,
cultural, economic and even physiological reasons. According to them, greater
risk arises from practices that encourage girls to accept older men as partner
to preferences to their peer. Customs such early marriage, women inheritance of
a deceased brothers wife and other sexual practices etc makes the rate of
infection higher in girls than in boys, there is female-male ratio 38:1 in
Africa (WHO, 2004).
Human trafficking and the spread of HIV/AIDS are linked in many cases.
According to the 2004 U.S trafficking in persons report, more than 800,000
people are trafficked annually across international borders. Women and
sometimes girls as young as then are trafficked for commercial sex, and the outcome
is the epidemic HIV/AIDS that is being currently experience globally and particularly
in Sub-Saharan Africa. It has being estimated that as many as 500,000 women
where trafficked into western Europe for forced prostitution in 1996.Nigeria
girls and women are trafficked ,forced prostitution to Italy, France, Spain, Netherlands,
Cote D’Ivoire and south Africa. Most of these trafficked women and girls
coerced, forced, or trickled into commercial sex are more likely to be infected
with HIV/AIDS. This is why 43% of people living with HIV/AIDS are women and
girls. So forcing girls and women into violence, unprotected sex acts with
multiple partners is a significant factor in the spread of the AIDS pandemic.
Also, lack of awareness as regards to the stigma associated to people
that are already infected. Because of the stigma, some people who are
infected  fail to confront its head on by
going to do the right authorities for proper control measure and also because
of the stigma that is involved, so 
people are even scared of going their status for the normal three month
basis, and according to them ,they prefer not to know and die of it than
knowing that they have it. And you will agree with me that someone is infected
without even knowing would definitely keep on spreading it unknowingly too even
though there are some people who know they have it yet they spread it .


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