Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome(HIV/AIDS)

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency
Syndrome(HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of condition caused by infection with the
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV),following initial infection, a person may
experience a brief period of influenza like illness. This is typically followed
by prolonged period without symptoms as the infection progresses, it interferes
more and more with the immune system, making the person much more susceptible
to common infections like tuberculosis as well as opportunistic
infections(O.Is)and tumors that do not usually affect people who have working immune
system.

HIV is transmitted primarily via full unprotected sexual
intercourse(including anal and oral sex),contaminated blood transfusion, hypodermic
needles and from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery or breastfeeding, some
bodily fluid such as saliva and tears do not transmit HIV.
The Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency
syndrome (AIDS) is a major public health problem world wide affecting both
social and economic developments and also a cause for great concern all over
the world. Attentions are more focused on the issue because of high morbidity
associated with HIV/AIDS. This global health epidemics has created terrible
burdens and health threat for millions of individual, families and community.
As at 2010,there are over 75% living with HIV/AIDS(PLWHAS) in the
Sub-Saharan African. According to the joint United Nation Programme on
AIDS(UNAIDS) estimate as December 1991 that 5.4million of people are newly
infected with HIV.
Approximately 32.4million are adult,14.8 million women .And 1.2million are
children under fifteen Years. Also 2.6 million AIDS death. 2.1million adult,1.1
million women ,and 470,000 children. Total number of AIDS death since the
beginning of the epidemic was about 12.5million(2.7 million adult,6.2million
women,3.6 million children). HIV is a global pandemic. As of 2012, approximately
35.3 million people have HIV Worldwide with the number of new infections that
year being about 2.3million .

As of 2012, in
Nigeria, the HIV prevalence rate among adult age 15-49 was 3.1 percent. Nigeria
has the second largest number of people living with HIV. HIV epidemic in
Nigeria is complex and varies widely by region

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