feature of adequate layout
2. Examine the relevance
of proper layout and landscape planning and management to health
also referred to as a “blueprint” can be referred to a planning/landscaping document which shows the
current status of a community and also make recommendation on how it should
look like in the future. The major components of a master plan include aerial
photos, maps, diagrams, reports and statistical information that support the
master plan of a community, the following key areas are to be given adequate
Residential Area: Residential areas show the part
of the community that community that is or will be best suited for people to
live in. These areas are usually free from pollution by industries and heavy
noise. In planning for residential areas, there should be adequate
interconnectivity between the residential area and other parts of the
community. A good residential area should be an area where is liveable, good in
appearance, good transportation system, convenient and safe for all residents.
Economic development: The economic development of every community is a very import factor in
making a master plan. A master plan should be made in such a way that it boost
economic development, promote existing businesses and attract other businesses
to the community. A community should make adequate planning for markets,
industrial layout, community/city malls, etc. and these areas must be supported
by a functional transportation network.
Pre-planned community land usage: A master plan must take into cognisance how land in
the community is to be used for different purposes by people in the community.
This includes planning for parks and open space; residential areas; commercial,
office and industrial uses; civic and institutional uses; and mixed-use areas.
In making this plans, the master plan should also take cognisance of how the
community will look like in the future as a result of growth and development
and should be able to make adequate plans to accommodate such without
distorting the ecosystem.
Effective transportation planning: The importance of effective transportation system in
a community cannot be over-emphasized, in must be given adequate attention to
make sure that transportation to every part of the community is effectively
managed to enhance the movement of people and goods easily throughout the
Community facilities: Community facilities such as health care centres, community town
halls, police stations, court, libraries, market, schools, etc. must be given
adequate consideration. They should be located in areas that are easily
accessible by every facet of the community. Most importantly, they must be
provided with good transportation network.
Recreational Centre: A master plan should contain
areas en-marked for recreational centres such as parks, stadium, open field,
community playground, etc. where people can go for recreational and leisure
Features of a planned layout of a Recreational Ground
activities envisaged by the planner to be carried out in the recreational
ground must be given consideration to ensure that the recreational ground do
not serve as a nuisance to the surrounding environment and also the surrounding
environment should not also constitute a threat to the recreational ground. To
ensure this, planning a recreational ground should include collecting and
analysing information, to make sure the right facilities and venues for
recreation are developed and that the right places are protected to meet our
future recreation needs.
Features of a
Planned Burial Ground Layout
aide by the community here dead people are buried. In planning a burial ground, there are major
factors to be considered. The location of the burial should not be close to the
community water source to guide against the outbreak of communicable diseases,
especially for people who died from disease that can be transmitted from the
dead to other people even after death such as Ebola, cholera, etc. A community
burial ground should be effectively managed to avoid burials in existing
graves. In order to do this, locations where people has been buried should be
entered into a register called the burial register, and signage or grave stone
should be placed against each of the already existing graves.
Features of a
Planned Railway Line Layout
planning the layout for a railway line several factors must be considered, but
most important of the layout but the most important of them all is the terrain.
It must be in gentle sloping areas, free from sharp bends and it must not be in
marshy terrain. In planning fro railway lines, effort must be made to as much as
possible avoid busy residential and industrial areas, to cut down obstructions
and accidents. The railway line station must be located in areas where there
are feeder roads to connect people from different part of the community with
ease to the railway station.
plant in a community. Coastal bays, lakes, rivers, and streams and groundwater must
be protected to avoid pollution especially water meant for drinking. Planning
for water bodies must include measures to measures to integrate the urban water
cycle, including stormwater, groundwater and wastewater management and water
supply, into urban design to minimise environmental degradation and improve
aesthetic and recreational appeal. This can be done through mapping of source
water areas around the drinking water source, identifying potential contaminant
sources in the mapped protection area that may impact the drinking water supply,
determining the magnitude of the threat posed by the potential sources of
contamination and notifying the public of the results of the assessment.
area” or “protected area” are used interchangeably to referred to area
protected from indiscriminate usage by the public. This include protected monuments declared as of
national importance and extending to a distance of 100 meters in all direction.
This is an area in which entrance is based on permission on a condition of
Road types and connection
traffic in a community to avoid gridlocks. As plans are developed for new
roads, highways and bridges, or for reconstructing existing facilities, best
management practices to help reduce the volume and concentration of erosion and
sedimentation produced by the project should be incorporated into project
the environment. Poor planning can contribute to pollution problems. Wetlands
and vegetated areas near water bodies can be damaged by construction,
decreasing the water quality benefits that they normally provide. Areas
susceptible to erosion, such as steep slopes or land with loose soil, can be
disturbed, causing increased sedimentation flows into receiving streams. Environmental
features must be effectively planned and incorporated into planning of road network.
This should include analyzing environmental features, such as soils, climate, topography,
drainage patterns, and existing land use. This should take into cognisance of natural drainage
systems and also take advantage clearing and grading can be minimized, areas
susceptible to erosion and sedimentation should be avoided. Natural vegetation and buffer areas can be
preserved, and sensitive land and water areas that provide water quality
benefits (e.g., wetlands, spawning waters, etc.)
saturated with water whether seasonally or permanently is referred to as a
wetland. In making plans for wetlands in a community, attention must be paid to
biodiversity data gather information on the status of a focus or target species
such as threatened species. Collect information on the effects of human or
natural disturbance, collect information that is indicative of the general ecosystem health or condition of a specific wetland ecosystem, determine
the potential for sustainable use of biological resources in a particular
wetland ecosystem. In general, wetlands play a number of roles in
the environment, principally water purification, flood control, and shoreline
stability. Wetlands are also considered the most biologically
diverse of all ecosystems, serving as home to a wide range of
plant and animal life. The main wetland types include swamps, marshes, bogs, and fens; and sub-types
include mangrove, etc.
Waste dumpsites/disposal facilities
a means of disposal is refuse is paramount. Waste dumpsite or disposal
facilities are sites for the disposal of waste materials this may be
in form of open dumping or by burial which is the oldest form of waste treatment. The
most generally acceptable waste disposal facilities are sanitary landfills
waste disposal method. A well planned landfills are often the most
cost-efficient way to dispose of waste. While resource recovery and incineration both
require extensive investments in infrastructure, and material recovery also requires
extensive manpower to maintain, landfills have fewer fixed—or ongoing—costs,
allowing them to compete favourably.
electricity from one point in the community to another. A low-tension (LT) line
is an electric line supplying voltage of the range of 400 Volts for three-phase
connection and 230 Volts for single-phase connection while a high tension line
is used to supply voltage of 11 kilo-Volts or above. In planning a community,
it is paramount that HT voltage line should be planned to avoid residential
area while the low tension lines which supply voltage to the residential area
should be planned in such a way that buildings are not erected directly under the
low tension lines.
to as areas marked out in the community for recreation and leisure activities.
These areas are specially identified area free from hazards during leisure and
recreational activities. They are usually located in areas free of traffic,
industrial activities, and so on. Common features of public parks include, boat
ramps and/or picnic facilities, playgrounds,
hiking, running and fitness trails or paths, bridle paths,
sports field and courts, public restrooms depending on the budget and natural
Housing, Industrial and Commercial Areas
as residential areas which are usually set aside in a community for housing
purposes. This area is usually located in areas free from industrial and heavy
commercial activities. In planning a good residential area, several factors
must be considered which include good road network, access to facilities other
zoned and planned for the purpose of industrial development. An industrial park
can be thought of as a more “heavyweight” version of a business park
or office park, which has offices and light
industry, rather than heavy industry. Industrial parks are usually
located on the edges of, or outside the main residential area of a city, and
normally provided with good transportation access, including road and rail.
area is used for
activities. These activities include the buying and selling of goods
and services in retail
buying and selling, financial establishments, and wide variety of services that
are broadly classified as “business”. Even though these commercial
activities use only a small amount of land, they are extremely important to a
and landscape planning and management of health
proper layout and landscape planning and management of health in the following
inherent interest and allowing us to understand natural and cultural influences
that have shaped the landscape we see today, as well as those that are likely
to shape Devon’s future landscape. Landscapes link to many core areas of the
curriculum, including earth science, geography, history, art, literature,
map-making, environmental management and citizenship. They can therefore
provide a focus for a project with multiple learning outcomes.
essential for planning that is informed by local distinctiveness. Understanding
of landscape underpins decisions about capacity for new development and for
strategic spatial planning. Landscapes often span administrative boundaries and
recognising this will help with collaborative spatial planning. Considering
landscape during the planning process is important for meeting the requirements
of the European Landscape Convention which requires strong forward looking
planning actions to enhance, restore or create landscapes
landscape character; hence understanding the existing landscape character
context for new development is essential for sustainable planning. Development
can be used to create and enhance landscape character if it is appropriately
planned; however, inappropriate development can weaken and erode landscape
character. It is therefore essential that the planning of new development takes
account of landscape character and seeks to strengthen and enhance it. For
example, design guidance and development briefs based on landscape character
can help us understand how buildings and other features associated with
development can reflect and contribute to landscape character.
pressure on the landscape. The goods and services that the landscape provides
for people, such as food and water, will be affected by climate change. We can
use the landscape, however, to help us to adapt to and combat the effects of
climate change, for example by using moorlands to store carbon and wetlands to
the landscape from interventions that aim to tackle and adapt to climate
change, such as introducing renewable technologies into the landscape. It is
important to understand the landscape character and sensitivity of the
landscape when planning for climate change
will impact upon landscape character. Managing a landscape to enhance key
characteristics will have a positive landscape impact whilst the introduction
of new and inappropriate elements may erode or damage the strength of landscape
character. Appropriate landscape management can harmonise and guide changes
brought about by social, environmental and economic processes such as
tackles the issue of habitat loss, providing rich and diverse habitats for
wildlife, and provides species with the flexibility to respond to pressures
such as climate change. Conserving biodiversity across whole landscapes, rather
than in individual sites, allows more habitats to be created where there is
currently too much fragmentation to support the species dependent upon them. This approach not only makes the landscape
better for wildlife, but also for people: creating a landscape which people
enjoy, and where the goods and services supplied by the landscape are
and discuss the effect of improper layout and landscape planning and management
on the environment and health.
effect of improper layout and landscape planning could lead to several
problems’ they are typically referring to damage to the physical environment,
mostly caused by other people, and usually with harmful consequences for human
welfare, either now or in the future. So common sense suggests that urban
environmental problems are threats to present or future human well-being,
resulting from human-induced damage to the physical environment, originating in
or borne in urban areas.
environmental health problems such as inadequate household water and sanitation
and indoor air pollution.
environmental problems such as ambient air pollution, inadequate waste
management and pollution of rivers, lakes and coastal areas.
impacts of urban activities such as ecological disruption and resource
depletion in a city’s hinterland, and emissions of acid precursors and
or global environmental burdens that arise from activities outside a city’s
boundaries, but which will affect people living in the city
& De Jong, H. (2012) Co-evolutions of planning and design.
conscience. Amer. Nurseryman. 203(3):33-37.
(1990). Constructed wetlands
in the sustainable landscape. Wiley & Sons. NY.
landscaping can improve conservation efforts. Landscape Mgmt. May/June Suppl
Livescapes. P. 8.
Some water-saving ways. Kansas State Ext. 4pp.
a theory of societal and political Processes. New York: Free Press.
J. (2003). Retracking America: A Theory of Transactive Planning. Garden City,
NJ: Anchor Press/Doubleday.
M. & Wilmoth, D. (2013). “Managing Metropolises by Negotiating
Mega-Urban Growth”.Institutional and
Social Innovation for Sustainable Urban Development.
solutions. Landscape Management May/June.
Participation in Planning: An Intellectual History. Australian Geographer , 36
in landscape design
and management. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. NY. 258pp.
and Getter, K. (2007). The green roof research at Michigan State University.
Theory since 1945, London, Sage.
Sustainable and Livable Cities”, Routledge; 3rd edition.
dry: managing water before it becomes a crisis. GrowerTalks.